Criminal Profiling Exam 1
Terms in this set (41)
Inferring the traits of individuals responsible for committing criminal acts.
Source disciplines of criminal profiling
Criminology, psychology, psychiatry, forensic sciences.
Alleged characteristics of witches, according to The Malleus Maleficarum
Childless and living alone; a spot, scar, or birthmark; symptoms of mental illness.
A form of false deduction defined as the practice of erroneously suggesting that traits, conditions, phenomena, or causal relationships exist because they can be traced to a divine or authoritative source, whereas, in fact, it merely reflects prejudiced social beliefs.
The "three legged stool" model of the Behavioral Science Unit at the FBI
Conducting research, providing education and training within the law enforcement community, and providing case consultations to support the efforts of local police departments.
The cornerstone of the scientific method.
Direct, systematic observation.
The hallmark of a scientific theory
The ability to disprove hypotheses.
The process of rational argumentation (and also the science of valid thought and reasoning).
Induction and deduction
Two general categories of logical reasoning.
Proceeding from specific facts or observations to broader patterns, hypotheses, theories, or general conclusions ("bottom-up" inference).
Making specific inferences from broader generalizations, models, or theories ("top-down" inference).
Individual case studies.
Categories of offenders, such as organized vs. disorganized.
Organized Crime Scenes
Planning, targeted stranger, control, restraints used, aggressive acts occur before death.
Disorganized Crime Scenes
Spontaneity, victim and location known, sloppy, sudden violence, minimal restraints, sexual acts after death.
Criminal investigative analysis
Evaluation, Comprehension, Police reports, medical examiner autopsy, development of profile, suggestions.
Behavior evidence analysis
Investigative (before arrest) and trial phase (tried for crime).
Generic descriptions of the services offered by medical and mental health professionals who rely on clinical experience.
Nomothetic, inductive, and dependent on the amount and accuracy of data collected.
Least Effort Principle
Given two choices, a person will choose the one that requires the least amount of effort.
Marauder - offender will strike from their base.
Commuter - offender will travel from base before striking.
The idea that the frequency of offenders crimes decreases as the offender travels further from home.
Signifies a field's (e.g., academic discipline's) application to legal questions.
Pertains to the defendant's mental state at the time of the offense and his/her criminal responsibility and ability to appreciate the wrongfulness of the criminal act.
Competency to stand trial
Refers to defendants' current ability at the time of trial to understand the legal charges against them and to assist counsel with their own defense.
Mental illness where a person presents physical or psychological symptoms to obtain whatever psychological benefits that would accrue from the role of being ill.
Are, at best, pseudoscience and, at worst, deliberately deceptive, many law enforcement agencies will use a psychic when all else fails.
Prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.
The redirection to a substitute, usually a therapist, of emotions that were originally felt in childhood.
Psychoanalytical term for ascribing to others the thoughts, feelings, or motives of oneself.
The feelings that the patient evokes in the therapist.
"Ideo-deductive" method (Turvey)
Involving the examination and interpretation of physical evidence, forensic victimology, and crime scene characteristics.
Refers to the conscious or unconscious tendency to affirm previous theories, opinions, or findings.
Assessment of victim risk and exposure.
Important aspects of crime scene analysis
Offender's method of approach, attack, and control; materials used and evidence of skill or planning; and signature behavior.
Generally refers to the process of inferring the traits of individuals responsible for committing criminal acts on the basis of physical and behavioral evidence.
Crime scene analysis
Refers to the analytical process of interpreting the specific features of a crime and related crime scenes, involving an integrated assessment of the forensic evidence, forensic victimology, and crime scene characteristics.
The body of the crime.
DNA, fingerprints, and distinctive bite marks
Forensic evidence that may be used to uniquely or conclusively identify a suspect.
Method of Operation behavior
Necessary to complete the crime (e.g., pulling a plastic bag over the head of a victim before shooting him, to prevent blood spatter).
Redundant, unnecessary behavior that offers insight into the offender's sexual fantasies and motivations (e.g., postmortem disembowelment of the victim).