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John Locke (1632-1704)
English philosophe (1632-1704) whose book Two Treatises on Government (1689) argued in favor of the social contract theory of government based on the protection of natural rights. Inspired the revolutionaries of the Atlantic revolutions and gave them justification for creating new governments
John Locke's idea, an agreement between a society and a government. Society agrees to follow the rules or be punished, thus giving the government the authority to make and enforce laws. The government agrees to protect our natural rights
an idea the Enlightenment that sparked revolutions, the idea that people can do what they want
American Revolution (1775-1787)
began when British took away liberties Americans had come to expect in their evolved society
French Revolution (1789-1815)
a period of extreme change in French society, experimentation with Enlightment ideas
Haitian Revolution (1791-1804)
only succesful slave revolt in history, inflamed by French Revolution (French colony), gained independence from France
Spanish American Revolutions (1810-1825)
revolutions in South America shaped by previous revolutions in which states gained independence from Spain and Portugul
an idea of the Enlightenment that sparked revolutions, government system in whcih the people hold power and authority
legal and social class in France before the French revolution consisting of everyone who wasn't noble or a memeber of the clergy; they were the majority of the nation (98%) and paid most of the taxes, but had virtually no rights; representatives wrote Declaration of the Rights of Man
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
this document was written by the Marquis de Lafayette (third estate) at the start of the French Revolution; it laid out the principals for which the revolutionaries were fighting and became the foundation for the new French constitution; said that 'men are born and remain free and equal in rights'
military dictator of France (1799-1815), spread ideas of revolution through conquest but repressed democracy and liberty
former slave who led the slave revolt in Haiti that resulted in Haitian independence
people born in the Americas whose parents had come from Spain or France, in the Latin American colonies, they were the elites and ultimately the leaders of the Latin American revolutions
the idea that all free people born in the Americas were Americanos, used to convince Latin Americans to fight for independence
the movement to end slavery, succesful as a result of slavery being bad in secular, religious, economic, and political ways
the idea that every nation has its own distinct culture and deserves independence - stimulated pride in citizens bound by 'blood, culture, or common experience
causes: eroding older identities, political leaders used to unite people
defines membership in the nation by living in the territory of the nation; but others could become members of a culture
Type of nationalism that developed in Germany (among other places), which defined membership in the nation by excluding some who were perceived not to have the same ancestry.
the movement for women's rights and equality to men, made women have access to schools, jobs, and voting booths
a kind of human community believed to have a distinct culture and territory and requiring sovereignty
Olympe de Gouges
French feminist who wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman in 1791 and encouraged women to seek the rights promoted by the Enlightenment and French Revolution
1775-1825, many areas of the Atlantic world (North America, South America, Haiti and parts of Europe) had political revolutions - in the Americas, new states were created as colonists fought for independence from European colonial powers, and in Europe, the French Revolution initiated a decade of change in which France uses Enlightenment ideas.
the authority to mae and enforce lasw with complete independence from other states or organizations
a kind of state in which one ethnic group controls an ethnically diverse population, usually in a larger territory
a kind of state with any government, usually with a small and one-ethnic population consisting of a city and the surrounding territory
rights that cannot be taken away, we have them because we are human: life, liberty, property
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
leading feminist who paraphrased Declaration of Independence and published Women's Bible
English Civil War
a conflict between supporters of King Charles I and Parliament over who had the authority to rule England
when King James 1 peacefully left England, allowing William and Mary to take the throne after signing the English Bill of Rights
the English dynasty that tried to behave like absolute monarchs in the 17th century. one king got his head cut off, and the last was driven out of England in 1688 when his son was born and baptized Catholic.
English Bill of Rights
document William and Mary sign before taking throne creating a constitutional monarchy in which Parliament and monarchy share authority and giving citizens certain rights
legislative branch of English government
the English representative law-making institution that opposed royal authority in the 17th century English civil wars
a kind of government in which Parliament and monarch share authority and the monarch has rules
dictators can't be punished, a revolution is the only way to change the government
the George Washington of Latin America, he led many of the Spanish colonies to rebel against Spain, but he failed to unite them in a United States of South America
Declaration of Independence
this document was written mostly by Thomas Jefferson, and it argued that the North American colonists were justified in rebelling against England because the English kind had take away their rights
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