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54 terms

Unit 2: Atlantic Revolutions

1. Explain the ideas of the social contract and its influence on the Atlantic Revolutions 2. Explain the importance of natural rights to the Atlantic Revolutions and the movements that they inspired (feminism, abolitionism, etc.)
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popular sovereignity
authority derived from the people rather than from God or tradition
John Locke (1632-1704)
English philosophe (1632-1704) whose book Two Treatises on Government (1689) argued in favor of the social contract theory of government based on the protection of natural rights. Inspired the revolutionaries of the Atlantic revolutions and gave them justification for creating new governments
social contract
John Locke's idea, an agreement between a society and a government. Society agrees to follow the rules or be punished, thus giving the government the authority to make and enforce laws. The government agrees to protect our natural rights
liberty
an idea the Enlightenment that sparked revolutions, the idea that people can do what they want
American Revolution (1775-1787)
began when British took away liberties Americans had come to expect in their evolved society
French Revolution (1789-1815)
a period of extreme change in French society, experimentation with Enlightment ideas
Haitian Revolution (1791-1804)
only succesful slave revolt in history, inflamed by French Revolution (French colony), gained independence from France
Spanish American Revolutions (1810-1825)
revolutions in South America shaped by previous revolutions in which states gained independence from Spain and Portugul
democracy
an idea of the Enlightenment that sparked revolutions, government system in whcih the people hold power and authority
Third Estate
legal and social class in France before the French revolution consisting of everyone who wasn't noble or a memeber of the clergy; they were the majority of the nation (98%) and paid most of the taxes, but had virtually no rights; representatives wrote Declaration of the Rights of Man
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
this document was written by the Marquis de Lafayette (third estate) at the start of the French Revolution; it laid out the principals for which the revolutionaries were fighting and became the foundation for the new French constitution; said that 'men are born and remain free and equal in rights'
Reign of Terror (1793-1794)
in the French Revolution, when thousands were killed on the guillotine
Napoleon Bonaparte
military dictator of France (1799-1815), spread ideas of revolution through conquest but repressed democracy and liberty
Toussaint Louverture
former slave who led the slave revolt in Haiti that resulted in Haitian independence
creole
people born in the Americas whose parents had come from Spain or France, in the Latin American colonies, they were the elites and ultimately the leaders of the Latin American revolutions
nativism
the idea that all free people born in the Americas were Americanos, used to convince Latin Americans to fight for independence
abolition/abolitionists
the movement to end slavery, succesful as a result of slavery being bad in secular, religious, economic, and political ways
nationalism/nationalists
the idea that every nation has its own distinct culture and deserves independence - stimulated pride in citizens bound by 'blood, culture, or common experience
causes: eroding older identities, political leaders used to unite people
civic nationalism
defines membership in the nation by living in the territory of the nation; but others could become members of a culture
racial nationalism
Type of nationalism that developed in Germany (among other places), which defined membership in the nation by excluding some who were perceived not to have the same ancestry.
feminism
the movement for women's rights and equality to men, made women have access to schools, jobs, and voting booths
nation
a kind of human community believed to have a distinct culture and territory and requiring sovereignty
Olympe de Gouges
French feminist who wrote Declaration of the Rights of Woman in 1791 and encouraged women to seek the rights promoted by the Enlightenment and French Revolution
Atlantic Revolutions
1775-1825, many areas of the Atlantic world (North America, South America, Haiti and parts of Europe) had political revolutions - in the Americas, new states were created as colonists fought for independence from European colonial powers, and in Europe, the French Revolution initiated a decade of change in which France uses Enlightenment ideas.
State
a government that exercises sovereignty over a population in a defined territory
Sovereignty
the authority to mae and enforce lasw with complete independence from other states or organizations
Empire
a kind of state in which one ethnic group controls an ethnically diverse population, usually in a larger territory
City-state
a kind of state with any government, usually with a small and one-ethnic population consisting of a city and the surrounding territory
Nation-state
a kind of state with any government, a population of a nation in any size territory
life
the right to live
property
the right to own things without them being taken, the right to own what you produce
natural rights
rights that cannot be taken away, we have them because we are human: life, liberty, property
republic
a government system that France became as a result of the Revolution
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
leading feminist who paraphrased Declaration of Independence and published Women's Bible
English Civil War
a conflict between supporters of King Charles I and Parliament over who had the authority to rule England
Glorious Revolution
when King James 1 peacefully left England, allowing William and Mary to take the throne after signing the English Bill of Rights
Stuart dynasty
the English dynasty that tried to behave like absolute monarchs in the 17th century. one king got his head cut off, and the last was driven out of England in 1688 when his son was born and baptized Catholic.
English Bill of Rights
document William and Mary sign before taking throne creating a constitutional monarchy in which Parliament and monarchy share authority and giving citizens certain rights
William and Mary
married monarchs that signed the English Bill of Rights, part of Stuart Dynasty
Absolutism
monarch has absolute power, follows Descending Model of Authority
Parliament
legislative branch of English government
the English representative law-making institution that opposed royal authority in the 17th century English civil wars
Constitutional monarchy
a kind of government in which Parliament and monarch share authority and the monarch has rules
cash crop
a crop grown to be sold
staple crop
a crop grown to be eaten
sugar
an important cash crop, grown in Haiti before the Hatian Revolution
Seven Years' War
war between Britain and France over land in North America
Patriotism
love for one's country
dictatorial impunity
dictators can't be punished, a revolution is the only way to change the government
Simon Bolivar
the George Washington of Latin America, he led many of the Spanish colonies to rebel against Spain, but he failed to unite them in a United States of South America
Declaration of Independence
this document was written mostly by Thomas Jefferson, and it argued that the North American colonists were justified in rebelling against England because the English kind had take away their rights
constitution
it defines the limits of a governments authority
legislative
the branch of government that makes laws
executive
the branch of government that puts laws into effect, carries them out
judicial
the branch of government that judges where the laws have been broken