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two substances are moved across a membrane in opposite directions (active transport)
primary active transport
hydrolysis of ATP phosphorylates the transport protein causing conformational change.
secondary active transport
use of an exchange pump (such as the na+-k+ pump) indirectly to drive the transport of other solutes
the plasma membrane infolds, bringing extracellular fluid and solutes into the interior of the cell
clathrin-coated pits provide the main route for endocytosis and transcytosis
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