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39 terms

Endocrine System

MCAT based test for the endocrine system
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Folicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Stimulates follicle maturation; spermatogenesis (source: Anterior pituitary)
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Stimulates ovulation;testosterone synthesis (source: Anterior pituitary)
AdrenoCorticoTropic Hormone (ACTH)
Tropic --> Stimulates adrenal cortex to make and secrete glucocorticoids (source: Anterior Pituitary)
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Stimulates the thyroid to produce thyroid hormones (source: Anterior Pituitary)
Prolactin
Direct --> Stimulates milk production & secretion (source: Anterior Pituitary)
Endorphins
Inhibits the perception of pain in the brain (source: Anterior pituitary)
Growth hormone
Direct --> Stimulates bone and muscle growth/lipolysis (source: Anterior pituitary)
Oxytocin
Stimulates uterine contractions during labour; milk secretion during lactation (source: Hypothalmus; stored in posterior pituitary)
Vasopressin (ADH)
Stimulates water reabsorption in kidneys (source: Hypothalmus; stored in posterior pituitary)
Hypothalamus
Part of the forebrain; located directly above the pituitary gland
Anterior pituitary
Anterior part of the small trilobed pituitary gland lying at the base of the brain. Synthisizes both direct hormones (directly stimulate their target organs) and tropic hormones (stimulate other endocrine glands to release hormones)
Glucocorticoids
Binds with GR receptors for glucose metabolism & to increase and maintain normal concentrations of glucose in blood. (source: Adrenal cortex) *Stimulated by adrenocorticotropic hormones from the anterior pituitary*
Thyroid hormones (T4, T3)
Stimulates metabolic activity (source: Thyroid)
Calcitonin
Decreases (tones down) blood calcium level (source: Thyroid)
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Increases the blood calcium level (source: Parathyroid)
Parathyroid glands
Four small pea-shaped structures embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid
Thyroid gland
A bilobed structure located on the ventral surface of the trachea. It produces and secretes hormones necessary for growth and neurological development in children.
Adrenal gland
Situated on top of the kidneys and consists of the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla.
Glucocorticoids
Increase blood glucose level and decrease protein synthesis (source: Adrenal cortex)
Mineralocorticoids
Increases water reabsorption in the kidneys (source Adrenal cortex) *Note - Vasopressin from the hypothalmus stimulates water reabsorption in the kidneys.*
Adrenal medulla
Specialized sympathetic nerve cells that secrete hormones into the circulatory system
Epinephrine & Norepinephrine
(AKA adrenaline) Increases blood glucose level and heart rate (source: Adrenal medulla)
Pancreas
Both an exocrine organ and an endocrine organ.
Exocrine glands
Glands that secrete their hormones into ducts.
Glucagon
Stimulates conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver, increases blood glucose (source: Pancreas)
Insulin
Lowers blood glucose by stimulating the uptake and glycogen storage of glucose by muscle & adipose cells (source: Pancreas)
Testosterone
Maintains male secondary sexual characteristics (source: Testes)
Estrogen
Maintains female secondary sexual characteristics (source: Ovaries/Placenta)
Progesterone
Promotes growth and maintenance of the endometrium (source: Ovaries/Placenta)
Endometrium
Inner membrane of the mammalian uterus.
Pineal gland
Tiny structure at the base of the brain.
Melatonin
Unclear in humans - circadian rhythms? (source: Pineal gland)
Atrial natriuretic peptide
Involved in osmoregulation (pressure of bodily fluids) and vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) (source: Heart)
Thymosin
Stimulates T lymphocyte development (source Thymus)
Thymus
An organ located in the upper anterior portion of the chest cavity just behind the sternum.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)
Preserves the corpus luteum during the first trimester of pregnancy. Pregnancy tests usually test for this hormone in urine (source: Blastocyst/Placenta)
T cells or T lymphocytes
A type of white blood cell which play a central role in cell-mediated immunity
Antibody
Gamma globulin proteins that are found in blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrates, and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses.
Antigen
A substance that prompts the generation of antibodies and can cause an immune response