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CHAPTER 8 ANATOMY

NEUROMUCSLEAR REFLEX
STUDY
PLAY
A REFLEX ARC CONSISTS OF?
1.RECEPTOR
2.SENSORY NEURON
3.MOTOR NEURON
4.EFFECTOR ORGAN
RECEPTORS
ARE SPECIALIZED CELLS OR ORGANS THAT TRANSDUCE INFORMATION FROM THE EXTERNAL OR INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT INTO NEURAL IMPULSES
EXTEROCEPTOR RECEPTOR
Are sensitive to stimuli from the external enviroment are located close to the surface of the body.
(outside site)
interoceptor receptors
are sensitive to stimuli from the internal environment.
(inside the body)
interoceptors may be divided into 2 categories what are the?
visceroceptors and proprioceptors
visceroceptors
receives impulses from the viscera. (organs) heart lungs ext.
proprioceptors
receives impulses from tissues directly associated with musculoskeletal movement and position. ( joint position in space)
neuromuscular spindles
are embedded in the bellies of muscles and are stretch sensitive responding to stretch with signals that tell the muscle to contract- to prevent the muscle from over streching.
golgi tendon organs
responds to touch!! Its in the tendons at the muscuo-tendonus junctions. they tell the muscles to relax- to protect the tendon from being pulled to tightly.
joint and skin proprioceptors
(around the joint) surrounds joint capsules and under the skin. they responed to pressure and send information about joint position to the central nervous system. (mostly the cerebellum of the brain.)
labyrinthine proprioceptors
are in the inter ear- and are essential for balance and equilibrium. inter ear is our balance!!
receptors that are stimulated from the outside environment are called?
its called exteroceptors
interoceptors consist of
visceroceptors and proprioceptors
types of proprioceptors include?
1.neuromuscular spindles
2.goli tendon organs
3.joint proprioceptors
4.labyrinthine proprioceptors
5. SENSORY NEURONS (afferent)
6. motor neuron (efferent)
sensory neurons (afferent)
are unipolar and cell bodies.Located in the dorsal root ganglia. There axons enter the dorsal horn of the spinal cord- where they synapse with either association neurons or motor neurons.
motor neuron (efferent)
this single type of neuron may supply from 10-2000 muscles fibers. It deprnds on the degree of fine motor control needed.
neuromuscular juction
the point of contact between the neuron and muscle fiber.
a sensory neuron is also called?
afferent
a motor neuron is also called?
efferent
intrafusal fibers
are specialized muscle fibers capable of partial contraction.
tendon reflexes
are triggered by golgi tendon organs located in tendons close to where they join the muscles.
when a intrafusal fiber is stimulated the muscle is told to?
contract
when a golgi tendon organ is stimulated the muscle is told to?
relax?
stretch reflex
intrafusal fibers and spindle fibers, a sensory neuron alerts a motor neuron to tell the quadriceps to contract, or shorten this is called