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Physics Chapter 6
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Terms in this set (45)
current
the amount of charge that passes through an area in a given amount of time
SI unit for current
Ampere (A), which equals one coulomb per second (C/s)
resistance
an opposition to the flow of charge
SI unit for resistance
Ohm (Ω), which equals one volt per amp (V/A)
electromotive force (EMF)
potential difference (V), or the process of chemical energy being converted to electrical energy
direct current (DC)
e- can only flow in one direction from the cathode (-) to the anode (+). This type of current is produced by batteries
alternating current (AC)
the e- in the circuit moves first in one direction and then the opposite direction, alternating back and forth. This type of current is produced by generators
conversion of AC to DC
accomplished by sending the current through 2 devices a diode and capacitor
diode
device that allows e- to flow in only one direction. A current that leaves the diode is not a true DC.
capacitor
stores electric charge and then releases the charge
voltage source
something that provides a potential difference (ex: battery or generator)
battery
device that converts chemical energy to electrical energy (DC). e- flows from negative terminal (cathode) to positive terminal (anode)
generator
converts mechanical energy to electrical energy (AC)
ohm's law
the electric current flowing through a given portion of a circuit is = to the voltage distance (drop) across that portion of the circuit divided by the resistance of that portion. The current is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance
electric power
the rate at which electric energy is converted into another form of energy
electricity is billed by
the amount of energy used
unit of energy used for billing
(kW)(hr)
capacitor
a device that stores electrical energy. they are made from 2 parallel plates, one with positive and one with negative charge. they can store more charge when the plates are larger and closer together
capacitance
a measure of the amount of charge on the conductors for a given potential difference
unit of capacitance
Farad (F)
F=C/V, C=q/V
circuit
a complete path or loop for electricity
indicator bulb
placed outside of the branches and allows one to observe the effect of additional resistors upon the overall current.
voltage drop
a loss in electrical potential that occurs as the electrical energy of the charge is transformed to other forms of energy (thermal, light, mechanical, etc.) within the resistors or loads.
electrical potential diagram
a conceptual tool for representing the electric potential difference between several points on an electric circuit.
voltage of the battery
equal to the sum of the voltage drops in each resistor
In series circuits, the resistor with the greatest resistance has the __ voltage drop.
greatest
Since the current is everywhere the same within a series circuit, the I value of __ is the same in each of the resistors of a series circuit. So the voltage drop (ΔV) will vary with ___.
ΔV = I • R; varying resistance
Wherever the resistance is greatest, the voltage drop will be ___ about that resistor.
greatest
node
branching location
The actual amount of current always varies ___ with the amount of overall resistance.
inversely
Since the circuit offers two equal pathways for charge flow, only __ the charge will choose to pass through a given branch.
1/2
In series, the total resistance is always __ than any individual resistance.
larger
In series circuits, charge has __ path through which to flow. Therefore, the current passing through each resistor in series is ___
one; the same
As charge passes through each of the resistors, it __ some energy. This means that there will be a __ across each resistor. The sum of all the potential differences equals___, assuming negligible resistance in the connecting wires.
loses; potential difference; the potential difference across the battery
In parallel circuits, the total resistance is always __ than any individual resistance
smaller
In parallel circuits, there is __ possible path and current divides itself according to the __ of each path. Since current will take the "path of least resistance," the __ resistor will allow the most current through. The sum of currents in each parallel resistor equals __.
more than one; resistance; smallest; original current entering the branches
The potential difference across each of the resistors in a parallel circuit is __. If there are no other resistors in the circuit, it is equal to __, assuming negligible resistance in the connecting wires.
the same; the potential difference across the battery
compound circuits
circuits which have resistors connected in both series and parallel
equivalent resistance
when two or more resistances are replaced by one resistance which equals the other resistances
junction rule
the total current directed into a junction must equal the total current directed out of the junction
loop rule
the sum of the potential drops equals the sum of potential rises for any closed circuit loop
resistance depends on...
1. material
2.cross sectional area
3. length of wire
material
a conductor has low resistance and an insulator has high resistance
cross sectional area
a thick wire has lower resistance and a thin wire has higher resistance
length of wire
a short wire has lower resistance and a long wire has higher resistance
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