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24 terms

Psychology Chapter 6 Quiz 1

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sensation
the process by which our sensory receptors receive info from our environment
perception
the process of interpreting info received from our environment
bottom-up processing
analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory info
top-down processing
info processing guided by higher-level mental processes; construct perceptions and experience expectations
psychophysics
study of relationships b/w physical characteristics of stimuli and our psychological experience of them
absolute threshold
minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
subliminal
below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
priming
activation usually unconsciously of certain associations, predisposing on'es perception, memory or response
difference threshold
minimum diff. b/w 2 stimuli required for detection 50% of the time
Weber's law
principle that, to be percieved as diff., 2 stimuli must differ by constant minimum percentage
sensory adaptation
diminished sesnitivty as a consequence of constant stimulation
wavelength
distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next
hue
dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; for example, blue and green as colors
intensity
amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness determined by a wave's amplitude
retina
light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones and layers of neurons that begin processing of visual info
accomodation
process by which eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on thr retina
rods
retinal recpetors that detect black, white and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision when cones don't respond
cones
retinal receptor cells near the center of the retina and function in daylight; detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations
optic nerve
nerve that carries neural impulses from eye to brain
blind spot
point at which optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot b/c no receptor cells are located there
fovea
central focal pt. in retina, around which eye's cones cluster
feature detectors
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of stimulus, such as shape, angle or movement
parallel processing
processing of aspects of a problem simultaneously; brain's natural mode of info processing for many functions including vision
opponent-process theory
theory that opposing retinal processes enable color vision