(PSY 450) Chapter 1: The Study of Behavioral Endocrinology.

Define: Hormones
Hormones are chemical messengers released from endocrine glands into the bloodstream to target cells where they induce changes in the rate of function.
Define: Behavior
An observable response to the environment. Described as an action or consequence.
Define: Behavioral Endocrinology
The study of the interaction between hormones and behavior.
Describe Berthold's Experiment.
Berthold's experiment demonstrated that a substance produced in the testes had an affect on behavior.

3 experimental groups: (1) castrated roosters, (2) castrated/reimplantation of testes, (3) castrated/transplantation of testes.
What were the main findings of Berthold's Experiment?
(1) Testes are transplantable organs.
(2) Transplanted testes can produce sperm.
(3) Neural connections are not needed for proper function of transplanted testes.
What are the four interacting levels of analysis used for exploring and explaining the causes of behavior?
(1) Immediate Causation
(2) Developmental
(3) Adaptive
(4) Evolutionary
Describe Immediate Causation.
___________ is concerned with the physiological or proximate mechanisms responsible for a given behavior. (i.e., zebra finches: elevated blood concentrations of estrogen are immediate causes of singing behavior)
Describe the developmental approach.
___________ is concerned with the full range of an organisms lifetime. (i.e., newborns of many species at first are quite rudimentary, but as they grow and respond to their environment, they become quite complex and develop certain behaviors.
Describe the adaptive approach.
The adaptive approach is concerned with what role behavior plays in a species adaptation to their environment.
Describe the 3 different types of links necessary to establish causal relationship between a
hormone and a behavior. Why is this so difficult?
(1) Behavior should diminish when the source of the hormone is removed.
(2) Restoration of the missing hormonal source should reinstate absent behavior.
(3) Hormone concentrations and the behavior should be covariant; that is, the behavior should be observed only when the hormone concentrations are relatively high and never or rarely observed when levels are low
What are three different techniques used to study hormones?
(1) Bioassays
(2) Immunoassays (radioimmunosassays)
(3) Radio
Describe: Bioassays
_______ measures biological response to a hormone.
Describe: Immunoassays (radioimmunoassays)
_______ are based on competitive binding to antigens. Hormones are tagged as radioactive. Both radioactive hormone and cold hormone compete for the binding site on the antibody. The concentration of hormone can be measured by precipitating the antibody and measuring the associated radioactivity.
Describe: Enzymoimmunoassay
______ are based on competitive binding to antigen, but do not require radiolabeled hormones.
List one difference and one similarity between the endocrine and nervous systems. What are the
main characteristics of hormones and the endocrine system
One difference is that neural messages have a rapid onset and offset, however, hormonal messages take much longer. For example, the nervous system regulates immediate food intake, whereas hormones mediate longterm processes such as somatic growth.

Similarly, both rely on chemical signals.