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BIOL 172 Exam 4
Terms in this set (67)
Measurements taken by spirometer
Calculated using respiratory volumes
Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath under resting conditions
Inspiratory reserve volume
Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation
Expiratory reserve volume
Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation
Amount of air remaining in the lungs after a forced exhalation
Total lung capacity
Maximum amount of air contained in lungs after a maximum inspiratory effort
maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiratory effort
Maximum amount of air that can be inspired after a normal expiration
Functional residual capacity
Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal volume expiration
Minute Respiratory Volume
Amount of air inhaled per minute
What does Henry's Law state?
-Explains dissolving characteristics of a gas in a liquid (always diffusion)
-A law stating that the mass of a dissolved gas in a given volume of solvent at equilibrium is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas.
What does Dalton's Law State?
Total atmospheric pressure is the sum of the contributions of each individual gas
Where is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide the highest?
What factors decrease respiratory efficiency?
Loss of ventilated lung parenchyma, diminished compliance of lungs, thorax or both, airway obstruction, and insufficient respiratory airflow.
What is the "equation"?
CO2+H2O <-> H2CO3 <-> HCO3+H+
Which way does the equation proceed at the tissues?
Toward the end of the equation
Which way does the equation proceed at the lungs?
Toward the beginning of the equation
How is oxygen transported in the blood?
Inside the air sacs, oxygen moves across paper-thin walls to tiny blood vessels called capillaries and into your blood. A protein called hemoglobin in the red blood cells then carries the oxygen around your body.
How is carbon dioxide transported in the blood?
1. Dissolved in the plasma 7-10%
2. Bound to Hb (globin) 20-30%
3. HCO-3 (the equation) 60-70%
What factors increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to the peripheral tissues?
1. When your body's temperature increases, more oxygen is released from hemoglobin.
2. When carbon dioxide levels increase at the tissue capillaries, blood pH decreases.
We looked at several types of dissociation curves. Low pH alters hemoglobin structure so that oxygen binds less strongly to hemoglobin at low PO2. This increases the effectiveness of what?
What factors affect hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen?
-PO2 (partial pressure)
If PO2 increases, saturation in your tissues increase. What molecule stores the oxygen? (check out that dissociation curve chart again)
The binding of oxygen to hemoglobin, or its release from hemoglobin, depends on the PO2 in the plasma. When the PO2 is high, as is the case when the blood passes through the lungs for reoxygenation, this stimulates the oxygen to bind with hemoglobin.
What do the apneustic centers of the pons control?
The rate and depth of breathing
Functional anatomy of the ureters
-Retroperitoneal, muscular tubes that extend from each kidney to the urinary bladder
-Pass posterior to the bladder and enter it from below
-Flap of mucosa at the entrance of each ureter acts as a valve into the bladder
-Keeps urine from backing up into the ureter when the bladder contracts
Functional anatomy of the urinary bladder
-Muscular sac located on the floor of the pelvic cavity
-Inferior to the peritoneum and posterior to the pubic symphysis
-Tube that conveys urine out of body
Functional anatomy of the female urethra
Definition for peristalsis as it pertains to urine movement.
Peristalsis is rhythmic muscle contraction that moves the urine through the ureters and bladder
Describe the location of the kidneys
Retroperitoneal at the level of T12 to L3
What are the functions of the urinary system?
Eliminates wastes, regulation of blood volume and pressre, stimulation of RBC (Red Blood Cell) formation, control of fluid electrolyte, and acid- base balance, detoxification
How does the glomerulus capillary system differ from other capillaries in the body?
Unlike most capillary beds, the glomerular capillaries exit into efferent arterioles rather than venules.
What is the structural and function unit of the urinary system?
By what mechanism do renal tubules reabsorb water?
Water reabsorption is by osmosis through water channels in the membrane. These water channels consist of a family of proteins called aquaporin. At least seven different aquaporin isoforms are expressed in the kidney.
What things are reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
65% of water, sodium, potassium and chloride, 100% of glucose, 100% amino acids, and 85-90% of bicarbonate.
Compare the fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule to plasma
The main difference between blood plasma and glomerular filtrate is that the blood plasma contains suspended cells, proteins, and large molecules while the glomerular filtrate, generally, contains neither of these.
What is the function of angiotensin II ?
Angiotensin II (Ang II) raises blood pressure (BP) by a number of actions, the most important ones being vasoconstriction, sympathetic nervous stimulation, increased aldosterone biosynthesis and renal actions.
What methods control glomerular filtration rate?
tubuloglomerular feed-back (TGF) mechanism. juxtaglomerular apparatus from responding to changes in its regulating signal, i.e. the site of an autonomous autoregulation mechanism.
Who have more UTI infections? (male or female)
-Due to short urethra
-Frequently triggered by sexual intercourse
-Can spread to the ureter causing pyelitis (infection of the renal pelvis)
Describe the composition and properties of urine.
-Appearance- Varies from clear to deep amber depending on state of hydration
-Yellow color due to urochrome pigment from breakdown of hemoglobin (RBCs)
-Cloudiness or blood could suggest urinary tract infection, trauma, or stones, or contamination with other fluids
-Pyuria-Pus in the urine
-Hematuria- Blood in urine due to urinary tract infection, trauma, or kidney stones
-Odor-Bacteria degrade urea to ammonia, some foods and diseases impart particular aromas,,.;
What are some causes of kidney stones?
-Crystallized calcium magnesium and or uric acid
-Low fluid intake
-High intake of animal protein, sodium, sugars
-Men are twice as likely to get kidney stones due to their elongated urinary tract
Definition of micturition?
Name the major fluid compartments and explain how water moves from one to another
2/3 intracellular fluid-1/3 extracellular fluid: interstitial, blood plasma, lymph, transcellular fluid
Extracellular fluids have relatively concentrations of which electrolytes?
high sodium and low potassium ion concentrations.
Intracellular fluids have high concentrations of which electrolytes?
potassium and phosphate ions
The stimuli to stop drinking comes from?
Distension of the stomach
List the body's sources of water and routes of water loss
Intake: Metabolic water, food, drink
Output: Feces, expired air, cutaneous transpiration, sweat, and urine
Drinking alcohol produces its diuretic effect by?
Reduces the tubular reabsorption of water, and inhibits ADH secretion
What causes water intoxication?
Drinking too much water can decrease sodium in the blood to dangerously low levels, causing mild to life-threatening problems. People who participate in endurance activities, such as a marathon or triathlon, are at risk.
Why is a person who is severely dehydrated likely to have a high fever?
When your body doesn't have enough fluids, it's hard to maintain a regular body temperature and this can lead to hyperthermia and fever-like symptoms including chills.
Role of aldosterone?
regulate salt and water in the body
How do Acid-base buffer systems minimize pH changes?
dampening the change in hydrogen ion concentrations in the case of excess acid or base.
What are some examples of physiological buffers?
bicarbonate, phosphate, hemoglobin, and protein systems.
List some things that cause respiratory acidosis
-Occurs when person breathes shallowly or from diseases that hamper gas exchange
List some things that cause metabolic acidosis
-Too much alcohol
List some things that cause metabolic alkalosis
-Vomiting of acid contents/ stomach
-Intake of excess antacids
The additional volume of air that can be inhaled at the end of a resting inspiration is called the
inspiratory reserve volume
Gas exchange between the air in the alveoli and the blood in nearby capillaries occurs by the process of
The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases ________.
Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?
partial pressure gradient
In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________.
only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in blood
Carbaminohemoglobin is formed when hemoglobin bonds with
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase speeds up the reaction between
carbon dioxide and water.
The local matching of blood flow with ventilation is ________.
a decrease in plasma pCO2.
Which of the following is not a stimulus for breathing?
rising blood pressure
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