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What is the approximate molarity of sodium chloride in ocean water, if the density of ocean water is 1.028 kg/L? (3.5% of NaCl in Ocean water)
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Potential Energy =m * g * hKinetic Energy =1/2mv^2The preferred ion configuration of many elements on the periodic table is determined by:the electron configuration of the nearest noble gas; elements will gain or lose electrons until they have the same valence electron configuration as this noble gas.Velocity forumulav=d/tjoint translation occurs in 0.2 s. What is the average velocity of the talus during translation [if we know that the translation was 5.7mm]?30 mm/s > 3x10^-2gravity constant =10 m/s^2If a 65-kg man undergoes a turning acceleration of 5 m/s2 during a running turn, what is the magnitude of force experienced by the foot due to the ground?~7.5 > 750For a monoprotic acid at the equivalence point, moles acid = ?Mbase × Vbase = Macid × Vacid = moles acid.Competitive inhibitors increase the ? of their associated enzymatic reactions without altering the ? value, as shown in the Michaelis-Menten graphKm VmaxAt pH values greater than the carboxyl pKa of 3.7, the carboxyl group will predominately be found in a ? form.deprotonatedAt pH values below 9.8 (the thiol pKa), the thiol group will predominately be ?protonatedNitrogen primarily exists in the atmosphere as a diatomic gas. What is true about this form of nitrogen?Diatomic nitrogen gas is relatively inert and can be used as the atmosphere in laboratory conditions to prevent unwanted side reactions -The MCAT will expect you to be familiar with N2 as a very inert gas. This information implies that nitrogen is very unreactive. As such, it would serve as a good artificial atmosphere when working with reagents that might react with oxygen or other gases.What is the bond angle of the bond angle between the carbons in a molecule of acetone?120 degrees -Acetone has a central carbon atom that is double-bonded to an oxygen and single-bonded to two carbon atoms. Since it is bound to three substituents and has no lone pairs, the hybridization around this carbon is sp2, creating a trigonal planar geometry and a bond angle of 120º.A circuit is constructed with a 12-V battery and four identical resistors, each with a resistance of 16 Ω, hooked up in parallel. What is the total power dissipated by the circuit?36 WThe meal that the scientists provided to each of the volunteers at t = 10 hours contained five eggs weighing 50 g each. Approximately how much methionine was served to each volunteer [knowing an egg provides 400 mg of methionine per 100 g of weight]?1 x 10^3 mgO2 serves as the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain and must possess a standard reduction potential that is more ? than any other acceptor in the chainpositive -the answer needs to be higher than any voltage given in the problemIn laboratory experiments, the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate has been shown to occur slowly. In the body, this process occurs rapidly. Which of the following may account for this observation?The catalytic activity of enzymes present in the body, but not in the laboratory experiment, reduce the activation energy associated with the hydrolysis of ATP. -The catalytic action of enzymes changes the activation energy, and thus the reaction rate, of reactions in which enzymes are involved. Specifically, enzymes decrease the activation energy. The presence of various ATP-hydrolyzing enzymes in the body, and the absence of such enzymes in the laboratory, could account for the observed difference in reaction rates.A ray of white light moves through the air and strikes the surface of water in a beaker. The index of refraction of the water is 1.33 and the angle of incidence is 30º. All of the following are true EXCEPT: I. the angle of reflection is 30º. II. the angle of refraction is 30º. III. total internal reflection will result, depending on the critical angle.II and III only -The angle of incidence always equals the angle of reflection (I) - so (I) is true -Light entering a more dense medium will bend towards the normal. With an angle of incidence of 30º, the angle of refraction must be less than 30º (II). (II is false) -Total internal reflection can only result when a ray of light begins in a higher-index material and reaches a boundary with a lower-index one (e.g. starting in water and moving towards air). Here, the light ray started in air (n = 1) and moved into water (n ∼ 1.3), making total internal reflection impossible (III). (III is false)The transcription factor AP-1 is a heterodimer consisting of c-jun and c-fos. C-jun and c-fos are soluble proteins that can be localized to either the cytosol or nucleus of a cell. C-jun and c-fos dimerize through a leucine zipper motif. In a leucine zipper motif, every 7 amino acid residues, or 2 full turns of an alpha helix, are leucine resides. Leucine and other amino acids on one face of the helix come together to form an opposite alpha helix that has a similar arrangement of leucine and other amino acids. Which solvent would be LEAST favorable for c-fos/c-jun dimerization? -Hexane -Ethanol -Water -Phosphate buffered salineHexane -For long questions like this one, begin by summarizing exactly what the question is asking. In short, leucine residues on different parts of a molecule are coming together to form a dimer. Leucine is hydrophobic, since its side chain contains only carbon and hydrogen. If the solvent were also hydrophobic, the face of a leucine zipper could interact just as favorably with the solvent as with the opposite alpha helix. Some leucine residues would likely interact only with the solvent, preventing formation of the dimer entirely. Hexane, with its nonpolar hydrocarbon structure is the least polar solvent listedThe association constant, Ka, of Epithelial Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) binding to Epithelial Growth Factor (EGF) is 5.61 x 106. What is the Keq of EGFR + EGF → EGFR-EGF?5.61 x 10^6In order for the reactions to make the beaker hot to the touch, they must be ?. All exothermic reactions have a ? ∆Hreaction. The ∆Hreaction can be found using ?-exothermic -negative -Hess's law and the Hf , where ∆Hreaction = ∆ Hf products - ∆ Hf reactantsCarbocations are typically unstable due to their high concentration of ??. If a substituent can contribute some ?? to the carbocation, it will be "balanced" and the species stabilized.-positive charge -electron densityA resistorA resistor is a device that impedes the flow of charge in a circuitA capacitorWhen a voltage is applied, charges will accumulate on the plates, exactly as what occurs on a parallel-plate capacitor.typical value for the gravitational force that acts on an object to drag it down an inclinemg sin θstandard value for the normal force on an object positioned on an inclined planemg cos θTucson, Arizona is well known for its sunny, dry weather. A 33ºC day in Tucson can feel relatively cool and pleasant compared to a similar temperature in a humid city like Tampa. The phenomenon of "dry heat" feeling subjectively cooler is a result of:increased evaporation from the skin helping to keep the body cool.Vinblastine is a microtubule-disrupting drug that inhibits tubulin polymerization. Which of the following processes would be directly inhibited upon vinblastine treatment? I. Phagosome transport to the lysosome II. Mitosis III. Meiosis IV. Electron transportI, II, and III only -Microtubules are used in the transport of vesicles and the positioning of organelles within the cell. As part of this role, they form structures that assist in the transport of phagosomes (vesicles that contain particles that have been engulfed via phagocytosis) to the lysosomes of the cell, to which the phagosomes fuse (I). Microtubules form the spindle apparatus that is an essential part of both mitosis and meiosis (II and III).the sequence in which information travels from the CNS to the peripheryThis sequence is cerebral cortex → spinal cord → efferent neurons (motor neurons) → muscle tissue.The peptide bond that forms the backbone of proteins is especially stable because it:exhibits resonance stabilization.In prokaryotes, genes can exist as operons that are transcribed into a polycistronic mRNA, containing multiple genes in a single transcript. In eukaryotes, transcripts exist only as monocistronic mRNA containing a single gene. What fundamental genetic difference is responsible for this distinction?In eukaryotes, each gene has its own transcription initiation site.In miRNA-directed gene silencing, a small RNA binds to an mRNA and directs degradation of the mRNA or prevents translation of the mRNA. Which of the following terms describes the process through which binding occurs?Hybridization - a process of binding through complementary nucleotides.Eosinophils play a major role in the promotion of the inflammatory response, which is marked by increased vasodilation, blood vessel permeability, and pain. The inflammatory response is classified as:a function of the innate immune system.In eukaryotes, the residues most prone to phosphorylation are ?serine (S), tyrosine (Y), and threonine (T).Which of the following enzymes should the researchers add to the cell samples if they want to reverse the general catalytic effects of protein kinase A?Protein phosphatase 1 -The opposite of this activity is the removal of phosphate from a substrate, a function which is performed by phosphatase enzymes. We do not need to know the exact reactions catalyzed by each enzyme to answer this question; nomenclature alone shows us that only this option represents a phosphatase.Stimulation of the iris dilator muscle is a result of activation of:sympathetic motor neurons. -Dilation of the pupils is a classic fight-or-flight response. The fight-or-flight response is part of the sympathetic nervous system.Increasing plasma concentration of aldosterone is most likely to be followed by ?Increased sodium reabsorption in the distal tubuleWhen normal human cells are grown in culture, they will divide a limited number of times - typically 50 rounds of mitosis. After this number is reached, the cells become apoptotic. This cell death is a result of:chromosomal telomeres shortening after each round of division.What aspects separate single-crossover events from double-crossover events?Single-crossover events affect only the ends of chromosome arms, while double-crossover events can affect segments in the middle of chromosome arms. -A double-crossover event is one in which chromosomal arms of homologous chromosomes cross over in two different places along the arm. This results in a section in the middle of each chromosome being exchanged.Troponin isoenzymes are used as an alternative biomarker in the diagnosis of heart attacks. In which of the following muscle types does the troponin complex function in contraction? I. Skeletal muscle II. Smooth muscle III. Cardiac muscleI and III only -Troponin is a complex of three proteins (troponin I, troponin C, and troponin T) required for muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle (I and III).In a population of Amish people, the frequency of the recessive autosomal allele for polydactyly is 1.2%. What percent of the population are heterozygotes for the polydactyly allele?2.37%aneuploidy in Alzheimer's disease may result from disruption of the mitotic spindle. This apparatus is composed of what structures?MicrotubulesWhich of the following do NOT have proteins with a nuclear localization signal? I. E. coli II. Homo sapiens III. Fungi IV. ArchaeaI and IV only -E. coli (a species of bacteria) and archaea do not have nuclei and thus do not have a need for nuclear localization signal on their proteins (I and IV).While the blood is buffered primarily through the equilibrium between carbon dioxide and carbonic acid, coupled with hemoglobin, the blood may also be buffered through other plasma proteins. What is true about this?The amino acid residues that make up the protein may act as Brønsted acids or bases, reducing shifts in pH. -The amino acids that make up a protein may include many acidic or basic side chain groups. Those side chains can either release or absorb protons, allowing them to help buffer the blood through action as a Brønsted-Lowry acid or base.Mediating VariableA mediating variable is one which explains the association between two other variables through a causal relationship.Confounding variableA confounding variable is one which is not typically of interest to the researcher but is an extraneous variable which is related to BOTH the dependent and independent variables.endogenous hormones produced in what endocrine gland?anterior pituitaryA drive-reduction and cognitive theorist would argue that depression is most strongly correlated with a deficiency in which component of fulfillment?Arousal -Drive-reduction theories suggest that depression stems from a reduction in the motivating forces of arousal. A cognitive theorist would argue that arousal is essential to sustaining most behaviors.Abnormal functioning of which brain region(s) plays a role in the development of depression? I. Frontal lobe II. Limbic system structures III. HypothalamusI, II, and III -The frontal lobe is involved in humans' ability to project future consequences of current actions (I). Limbic system structures regulate emotion and memory (II), and the hypothalamus coordinates many hormones, some of which are involved in mood regulation (III). Therefore, abnormal functioning in any (or all) of the three could produce symptoms similar to depression.IncidenceIncidence describes the number of new cases of a disease (in this case, multiple sclerosis) during a specific time interval (a year).A teenage boy believes strongly that success in playing football makes him more "manly" and he judges his male peers by their knowledge of, enthusiasm for, and skill with football. Whenever the boy calls his friend a sissy for not liking football, his dad laughs. The boy most likely developed this view as a result of which of the following forms of feedback from his environment? I. Viewing many television programs that associate successful males with football II. Failing to earn membership on a football team at school III. Operant conditioning IV. Gender schemataI, III and IV only -The boy holds a strongly positive attitude towards football, and attitudes are a result of various types of learning — typically instrumental learning (operant conditioning) and social learning. Information taken in through mass media can certainly serve as a form of social learning that influences ideas about gender norms (I). The boy has clearly been rewarded for the ideas he holds, as evidenced by his father's laughter (which signifies approval) in response to the "sissy" comment. Rewards that reinforce behaviors or ideas are part of operant conditioning (III). Finally, schemata are networks of information that allow certain other kinds of information to be transmitted more easily. If the boy already has a gender schemata that includes certain ideas about masculinity (e.g. rough, physical play) and football more easily fits that schemata, it will lead to the boy developing this attitude about football and masculinity (IV).What is this scenario describing? A father discourages his son from playing with children who are not members of their culture.a negative consequence of ethnocentrismEthnocentrisma world view in which one's own culture and traditions are seen as inherently superior to those of other people. It is propagated from one generation to the next through a variety of cultural channels, the first and most important of which is the family.Reconstructive biasReconstructive bias is a type of bias related to memory. Most research on memories suggests that our memories of the past are not as accurate as we think, especially when we are remembering times of high stress.Social desirability biasSocial desirability bias is a type of bias related to how people respond to research questionsAttrition biasAttrition bias occurs when participants drop out of a long-term experiment or study.Selection biasSelection bias refers to a type of bias related to how people are chosen to participate.The Schachter-Singer theory statesthat emotion processing has three distinct steps: physiological arousal, cognitive interpretation of the situation, and the experience of the emotion, in that order. EX: Julia pets her cat, which leads to physiological changes in her brain. She then thinks about her love for the cat and feels an emotion — happiness.James-Lange theory of emotion states thatbehavioral and physiological aspects of emotion (like increased heart rate and shouting) lead to cognitive aspects of emotion (like understanding that a situation is scary and feeling afraid). EX:Timothy's dog runs out of the house without his collar or leash. Timothy's heart rate increases and he shouts for the dog to come home. His body's cues and behavior lead him to understand that he is in a scary situation, and he feels afraid.This statement supports the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion states thatphysiological and cognitive aspects of emotion occur simultaneously and independently. Annabel's brain released hormones at the same time that she interpreted the situation as happy and calm. The theory also states that behavioral expression is the last aspect - like when Annabel smiled. EX: Annabel is holding her guinea pig on the couch and scratching its ears. As she does this, her brain releases hormones associated with reward. At the same time, she interprets the situation as happy and calm. She then smiles.This statement supports the Yerkes-Dodson law states thatpeople tend to perform their best when they're moderately emotionally stimulated. EX: Luke is training for a marathon and runs with his dog, Max. He feels moderately happy and excited while he runs with Max, and records his best time yet. -Luke is moderately happy when running with his dog, which leads to optimal performance.Cognitive dissonance isthe unpleasant feeling a person experiences when holding two contradictory beliefs at the same time.Casinos maximize the amount of money that people are willing to put into slot machines by making sure that the slot machines pay out jackpots on a reinforcement schedule that is the most resistant to behavior extinction. These machines use which reinforcement schedule?Variable-ratio -Variable-ratio reinforcement schedules tend to produce the highest response rates that are the most resistant to extinction, which is exactly why casinos use them.The Stroop effect.describes the phenomenon in which it is harder for an individual to reconcile different pieces of information relating to colors than to reconcile similar pieces of information.attribution theoryAttribution theory relates to how we "attribute" (assign) perceived causes of behaviors and events. It does not relate to color perception or word recognition.SocializationSocialization refers to how individual attitudes are shaped by social factorsUrbanizationUrbanization is the pattern of movement from rural areas to cities. EX: rural areas do not have enough resources to support a population, so the people are moving to Benin CityVertical mobilityVertical mobility is the movement from one social level to a higher one or a lower one by either changing jobs or marrying.DeindividuationDeindividuation describes how people lose their sense of self-awareness in a large group setting, which provides a high degree of arousal (or excitement) and a low sense of responsibility. The main factors that contribute to deindividuation are anonymity, diffused responsibility, and group sizeAn experiment is arranged in which participants spend 10 seconds, 20 seconds, or 30 seconds looking at a large, complex image. The image is then removed and replaced with a second image which is identical except for one small change. Researchers then measure how long the subjects look at the new image before finding the change. In this scenario, the independent variable is:the time spent looking at the original image. The independent variable is the one the researchers can control, and the dependent variable is the one they measure. Here, the experimenters can control the time the subject gets to study the first image (10 seconds, 20 seconds, or 30 seconds).NociceptorsNociceptors are pain receptors; thus, exercise likely downregulates nociceptors.baroreceptorsBaroreceptors measure pressure.When professors meet with individual students during office hours, they often exhibit communication styles that vary widely based on the person they're talking to. A study found that professors speaking with minority female students were much more likely to use shorter sentences with more instructions, and to ask questions that revealed an assumption of lack of academic skill. These professors were demonstrating:discrimination. The professors are demonstrating a change in their behavior - speaking and questions - based on race and gender. Such changes are discrimination.IngratiationIngratiation is an attempt to get someone to like you in order to get them to comply with your requests.Informational influenceInformational influence is an influence to accept information from others as evidence about reality, and can come into play when we are uncertain about information or what might be correct.ComplianceCompliance is superficial, public change in behavior in response to group pressure.opponent-process theoryOpponent-process theory explains self-destructive behaviors like drug addictionCognitive dissonance theory.Cognitive dissonance theory holds that people desire consistency between their thoughts, values, and actions, and seeks to explain the justifications people use for actions that do not align with their values and evoke cognitive dissonance. This would apply to instances of bystanders not intervening (an action), even though they would want others to intervene for them (a value).drive reduction theoryDrive reduction theory examines the actions we take to fulfill (reduce) basic biological drives, like hunger, thirst, or reproduction.Expectancy-value theoryExpectancy-value theory holds that the amount of motivation required to achieve a goal is affected both by a person's expectation of reaching the goal and how much that person values reaching that goal. So, if someone expects to reach a goal and values reaching that goal highly, she will need less motivation to achieve it, and vice-versa.folkwaysFolkways describe relatively unimportant norms governing social interactions, like how one uses silverware. Violations of folkways are not typically accompanied by especially intense disapproval.Double approach-avoidant conflictDouble approach-avoidant conflicts consist of two options with both appealing and negative characteristics, which seems to represent the jury's dilemma. If they rule the defendant guilty, they would either be punishing a criminal (approach) or punishing an innocent (avoidant). If they rule the defendant innocent, they would either be letting a criminal walk away unpunished (avoidant) or freeing an innocent (approach).Approach-approach conflictIn approach-approach conflicts, two options are both appealing.Avoidant-avoidant conflictIn avoidant-avoidant conflicts, both options are unappealingApproach-avoidant conflictAn approach-avoidant conflict is observed when one option has both positive and negative aspectsWhat describes the relationship between attribution theory and fundamental attribution error?Attribution theory relates to an attempt by an individual to interpret actions by assigning causes to them; fundamental attribution error is when an individual interprets another's actions incorrectly by overemphasizing internal characteristics instead of external events.Weber's law asserts thatperceptible differences are proportional to the initial perception. Thus, a 10% increase in area was perceptible, but a 1% to 9% increase in area was imperceptibleA private school sets up a system by which students may advance to the next grade solely on the basis of their individual performance on an exam. Given the wide variety of talents each student has, some students are able to advance to the next grade months or even years before other students. This system is:a meritocracy.MeritocracyMeritocracy is a system under which individuals are rewarded on the basis of individual skill, talent, or achievement. EX: The testing system a school has set up rewards students for success on this test, thus creating a meritocracy.Spatial discrimination typically refers toone's ability to distinguish between two points of contact with one's skinan oligarchyAn oligarchy is a system in which a small number of individuals hold the majority of the powerCompetitive inhibitors increase the ? of their associated enzymatic reactions without altering the ? valueKm VmaxO2 serves as the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain and must possess a standard reduction potential that is more ? than any other acceptor in the chainpositiveThe peptide bond that forms the backbone of proteins is especially stable because it:exhibits resonance stabilizationIn miRNA-directed gene silencing, a small RNA binds to an mRNA and directs degradation of the mRNA or prevents translation of the mRNA. Which of the following terms describes the process through which binding occurs?hybridizationHybridization =process of binding through complementary nucleotidesStimulation of the iris dilator muscle is a result of activation of:sympathetic motor neuronsSingle-crossover events affect only the ends of chromosome arms, while double-crossover events can affect segments:in the middle of chromosome armsWhich of the following do NOT have proteins with a nuclear localization signal? I. E. coli II. Homo sapiens III. Fungi IV. ArchaeaI & IV onlyAt a pH below the pKa for each functional group on the amino acid, the functional group is:protonatedAt a pH above the pKa for the functional group it is:deprotonated