1300 Pathology Unit 9: Cardiovascular System Worksheet
Broward College PTA first year
Terms in this set (66)
Blood that is pumped by the heart per minute
Congestive Heart Failure (Overview)
Heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
Narrow arteries in the heart or high BP causes heart to weaken. Difficulty pumping efficiently. Blood backs up into the liver, abdomen and lower extremities and lungs.
Congestive Heart Failure (Etiology)
Develops after other conditions have damaged or weakened the heart. Contributing conditions include: heart attack, coronary artery disease, hypertension, faulty heart valve, heart muscle damage, myocarditis, heart defect, abnormal heart rhythm.
Congestive Heart Failure (S/S)
Shortness of breath,
fatigue & weakness,
edema in lower extremities,
rapid or irregular heartbeat,
swelling in abdomen.
Acute heart failure (S/S)
same as chronic but more severe.
Congestive Heart Failure (Diagnostics)
Blood tests, x-ray, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, stress test, cardiac CT, MRI, coronary catherization.
Congestive Heart Failure (Treatment)
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE),
Angiotensin2 receptor blockers (ARBs)
coronary bypass surgery,
heart valve repair, defibrulators, cardiac resyncronization therapy (CRT), heart pumps, left ventricle assist device (LVAD) and transplant
blood pumped by the left ventricle in the heart in one contraction.
exhale forcibly with a closed glottis (windpipe) so that no air exits through the mouth or nose.
Heart arrhythmia (Overview)
electrical impulse in the heart that coordinates heart beats doesn't work properly. Causes heart to beat fast or slow or irregularly.
Heart arrhythmia (S/S)
fluttering in chest, racing heartbeat, slow heartbeat, chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting.
Rheumatic Heart Disease (Overview)
a complication of rheumatic fever which the heart valve are damaged.
swelling and irritation of the sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart. Causes chest pain. Acute.
inflammation of the middle layer of the heart wall. chest pain, heart failure, abnormal heart rhythms.
infection of the inner lining of the heart. Bacteria spreads through blood stream and attach to damaged areas in the heart.
a common condition in which the force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease.
Primary - no identifiable cause.
Secondary - caused by underlying conditions: Kidney problems, adrenal gland tumors, blood vessel defects, and some medications, and illegal drugs.
Most show no symptoms.
PRE = 120-139 systolic or 80-89 diastolic,
Stage 1 = 140-159 or 90-99
Stage 2 = 160+, or 100+
inflatable arm cuff (sphygmomanometer)
vasodilators (blood vessel dilator meds), high dose calcium channel blockers, Diuretics, anticoagulants
Cor pulmonale (Overview)
Also known as Pulmonary Heart Disease (pulmonary hypertension). Failure of the right side of the heart brought on by long-term high blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries and right ventricle of the heart.
Cor pulmonale (Etiology)
Caused by COPD,
Chronic blood clots in lungs,
Scarring of lung tissue,
Kyphoscoliosis - curving of upper spine,
Cor pulmonale (S/S)
fainting spells with activity,
Chest discomfort in FRONT of chest,
swelling of feet or ankles,
cyanosis (bluish skin)
Cor pulmonale (Diagnostics)
Blood antibody tests,
BNP - brain natuiuretic peptide test.
Pulmonary function tests,
Right heart catheterization
Cor pulmonale (Treatment)
Diuretics, blood thinners, Oxygen, Lung or heart transplant
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Overview)
the major blood vessels that supply your heart with blood, oxygen and nutrients — become damaged or diseased.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Etiology)
caused by damage or injury to the inner layer of a coronary artery, sometimes as early as childhood.
Smoking, High BP, High cholesterol, Diabetes, Radiation therapy to chest.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (S/S)
shortness of breath,
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)(Diagnostics)
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Treatment)
quit smoking,healthy diet,exercise,
Drugs for cholesterol, aspirin, beta blockers, Nitroglycerin, ACE inhibitors.
Angioplasty and stent,
Raynaud's Disease (Overview)
intermittent attacks causing the skin of fingers and toes to become pale and then cyanotic and painful; commonly provoked by cold or emotional stress; it is an exaggerated vasoconstriction response
Raynaud's Disease (S/S)
cold fingers and toes,
color changes in skin response to cold or stress, First skin changes white, then blue.
numb prickly feeling upon warming
Calcium channel blockers,
chemical injection to block nerves,
amputation in severe cases.
Aortic Aneurysm (Overview)
a weakened and bulging area in the upper part of the aorta, the major blood vessel that feeds blood to the body.
Aortic Aneurysm (Etiology)
exact cause unknown.
but Marfan's syndrome patients and those with heart valve problems are at higher risk for this.
Aortic Aneurysm (S/S)
most no symptoms.
Tenderness or pain in abdomen or chest and back pain.
Aortic Aneurysm (Diagnostics)
Most often diagnosed as result of routine chest xray or ultrasound of heart ordered for another reason. Further imaging test can be done to confirm.
Aortic Aneurysm (Treatment)
Angina Pectoris (Overview)
a type of chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle.
Angina Pectoris (Etiology)
cause reduced blood flow to that heart and is actually a symptom of coronary artery disease
Angina Pectoris (S/S)
mainly chest pain,
often described as a vise squeezing chest.
Angina Pectoris (Diagnostics)
Nuclear stress test.
Angina Pectoris (Treatment)
Angioplasty, bypass surgery.
Myocardial Infarction (Overview)
a blood clot blocks the flow of blood through a coronary artery.
Myocardial Infarction (Etiology)
coronary artery plaque build up causing clot restricting blood flow to part of the heart.
Myocardial Infarction (S/S)
Pressure or squeezing pain in center of chest,
Pain in shoulder, arm, back or even teeth and jaw,
Increasing episodes of chest pain,
shortness of breath, prolonged pain in upper abdomen.
Myocardial Infarction (Diagnostics)
Myocardial Infarction (Treatment)
Thrombolytics - Clot buster drugs,
angioplasty - stenting,
Peripheral Vascular Artery Disease (PVD)(PAD) (Overview)
a common circulatory problem in which narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to your limbs.
Peripheral Vascular Artery Disease (PVD)(PAD) (Etiology)
Caused by Atherosclerosis - fatty deposits build up in artery walls and reduce blood flow.
Peripheral Vascular Artery Disease (PVD)(PAD) (S/S)
Painful cramping in hip, thigh, or calf after walking,
leg numbness or weakness,
coldness in lower extremity,
Sores on toes or feet that won't heal.
Peripheral Vascular Artery Disease (PVD)(PAD) (Diagnostics)
Ankle-brachial index - common test for PAD measures BP.
Peripheral Vascular Artery Disease (PVD)(PAD) (Treatment)
Cholesterol lowering drugs,
High BP drugs,
Meds to control blood sugar,
Pulmonary Embolism (PE) (Overview)
blockage in one or more arteries in your lungs.
Pulmonary Embolism (PE) (Etiology)
Often caused by DVT.
a clump of material, most often a blood clot, gets wedged into an artery in your lungs. Clots most commonly originate in the deep veins of your legs, but they can also come from other parts of your body.
Pulmonary Embolism (PE) (S/S)
Shortness of breath, chest pain, cough.
Wheezing, leg swelling (one leg), clammy blue skin,
Pulmonary Embolism (PE) (Diagnostics)
Spiral CT Scan,
Pulmonary Embolism (PE) (Treatment)
Clot removal surgery,
Sick Sinus Syndrome (Overview)
a group of heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias) in which the sinus node — the heart's natural pacemaker — doesn't work properly.
Sick Sinus Syndrome (S/S)
fainting, shortness of breath,
Rapid fluttering heartbeats.
Marfan Syndrome (Overview)
an inherited disorder that affects connective tissue, which supports and anchors your organs and other structures in your body.
Marfan Syndrome (S/S)
Tall slender build,
unusually long arms, legs, fingers, toes,
Breastbone protrudes or dips inward,
High arched palate and crowded teeth,
extreme nearsightedness, curved spine, flat feet.
Bundle Branch Block (Overview)
a condition in which there's a delay or obstruction along the pathway that electrical impulses travel to make your heart beat.
Bundle Branch Block (S/S)
Most people no symptoms. But may include:
Feeling of fainting,
Slow heart rate.
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) (Overview)
condition in which a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one or more of the deep veins in your body, usually in your legs.
Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) (S/S)
50% have no symptoms.
Swelling in affected leg,
Pain in leg, ankle, foot - starts in calf.
warmth over affected area,
changes in skin color - pale, red or blue.