Terms in this set (31)
point source pollution
enters water from a specific location such as drainpipes or ditches; can be controlled or treated before the water is released to a body of water
Why is clean water important?
all organisms need it, polluted water brings death to many living things, can cause disease if it is polluted
nonpoint source pollution
enters water from a large area such as lawns, construction sites, and roads; includes pollutants in rain or snow
What is the largest source of water quality problems in the Unted States?
nonpoint source pollution
What is the largest source of water pollution in the Unted States?
What is sediment?
loose material such as rock fragments and mineral grains moved by erosion
What can increase sediment in rivers, lakes, and oceans?
What problems can sediment cause in bodies of water?
makes water cloudy and then it is difficult for underwater plants to get the necessary sunlight to make food; covers eggs of ogranisms that live in water; prevents organisms from receiving the oxygen they need to develop
What are pesticides?
chemicals used by farmers and home owners to keep insects and weeds from destroying their crops and lawns
Why can pesticides be dangerous to the environment?
some may run off into water supplies
What are fertilizers?
chemicals that help plants grow
How can fertilizers be harmful to the environment?
rain may wash away as much as 25% of these into ponds, streams, and rivers - they contain nitrogen and phosphorus that algae use to grow and multiply - when too much algae, they begin to decompose and oxygen in those bodies of water are used up very quickly causing fish and other organisms that need oxygen to die
What is sewage?
human waste, household detergents, and soaps - contain harmful organisms that can make people sick
How is sewage handled in most cities?
underground pipes take it from homes to treatment plants
What types of metals may be poisonous even in small amounts?
mercury, lead, nickel, and cadmium
What type of products are made with mercury, lead, nickel, and cadmium?
paints and stereos
What is another way that metals are released into water?
Where [what state] has more than 43 % of its streams and lakes containing metals from mining activities?
How do oil and gasoline cause water pollution?
runs off roads and parking lots into streams and rivers when it rains; also gasoline stored in tanks underground and as some tanks rusted, they leaked into surrounding soil and groundwater
When were federal laws passed requiring gasoline tanks to meet higher standards?
How can heat be deadly or act as water pollution?
when heated water is released into a source of cool water [ocean, river, lake] the hot water can pollute the cooler water because it contains less oxygen -- sudden release can kill a larger number of fish in a short time
When was the Water Pollution Control Act amended?
Clean Water Act of 1987
Created new standards for waste dumping, and new regulations for water run off and toxic pollutants in order to maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the national waters.
Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996
Strengthens health standards for drinking water.
Where has there been international cooperation regarding water pollution?
between the United States and Canada along the Great Lakes -- particularly Lake Erie
What are some ways people can help [at home] control or reduce water pollution?
read labels when it comes to proper disposal of wastes [paints, solvents,etc], take items to special locations that collect hazardous wastes, conserving water -- use less water so less must be purified and treated
What causes air pollution?
cars, buses, truck that burn fuel; exhaust that comes from vehicles; burning fuel from factories, generated electricity, burning trash, dust from plowed fields, construction sites
What are some natural sources of air pollution?
radon, particles and gases emitted during erupting volcanoes and fires
What is smog?
found in urban areas and is a combination of smoke and fog
What are some of the major sources of smog?
cars, factories, and power plants
What is photochemical smog?
hazy, yellowish brown blanket of smog over cities that forms with help of sunlight