Biology Vocabulary Final Exam

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Terms in this set (100)
Hydrogen Bonda weak bond between partially positively charged hydrogen atoms and partially negatively charged elements or moleculesHydrophilicdescribes a substance that dissolves in water; water-lovingHydrophobicdescribes a substance that does not dissolve in water; water-fearingLipidsa class of macromolecules that are nonpolar and insoluble in waterMacromoleculea large molecule, often formed by polymerization of smaller monomersNucleotidea monomer of nucleic acids; contains a pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous basePhospholipida major constituent of the membranes of cells; composed of two fatty acids and a phosphate group attached to the glycerol backbonePolypeptidea long chain of amino acids linked by peptide bondsPolysaccharidea long chain of monosaccharides; may be branched or unbranchedProteina biological macromolecule composed of one or more chains of amino acidsRNAa single-stranded polymer of nucleotides that is involved in protein synthesisStarcha storage carbohydrate in plantsSurface Tensionthe cohesive force at the surface of a body of liquid that prevents the molecules from separatingTriglyceridea fat molecule; consists of three fatty acids linked to a glycerol moleculeDNA ligasethe enzyme that catalyzes the joining of DNA fragments togetherDNA polymerasean enzyme that synthesizes a new strand of DNA complementary to a template strandDouble Helixthe molecular shape of DNA in which two strands of nucleotides wind around each other in a spiral shapeHelicasean enzyme that helps to open up the DNA helix during DNA replication by breaking the hydrogen bondsmRNAmessenger RNA; a form of RNA that carries the nucleotide sequence code for a protein sequence that is translated into a polypeptide sequencePromotera sequence on DNA to which RNA polymerase and associated factors bind and initiate transcriptionRNA polymerasean enzyme that synthesizes an RNA strand from a DNA template strandSemiconservative replicationthe method used to replicate DNA in which the double-stranded molecule is separated and each strand acts as a template for a new strand to be synthesized, so the resulting DNA molecules are composed of one new strand of nucleotides and one old strand of nucleotidesStart codonthe AUG (or, rarely GUG) on an mRNA from which translation begins; always specifies methionineStop codonone of the three mRNA codons that specifies termination of translationtemplate strandthe strand of DNA that specifies the complementary mRNA moleculetRNAtransfer RNA; an RNA molecule that contains a specific three-nucleotide anticodon sequence to pair with the mRNA codon and also binds to a specific amino acidBiotechnologythe use of artificial methods to modify the genetic material of living organisms or cells to produce novel compounds or to perform new functionsCloningthe production of an exact copy—specifically, an exact genetic copy—of a gene, cell, or organismGene Therapythe technique used to cure heritable diseases by replacing mutant genes with good genesGenetically modified organismsan organism whose genome has been artificially changedModel organisma species that is studied and used as a model to understand the biological processes in other species represented by the model organismPharmacogenomicsthe study of drug interactions with the genome or proteome; also called toxicogenomicsPlasmida small circular molecule of DNA found in bacteria that replicates independently of the main bacterial chromosome; plasmids code for some important traits for bacteria and can be used as vectors to transport DNA into bacteria in genetic engineering applicationsProteomicsstudy of the function of proteomesRecombinant DNAa combination of DNA fragments generated by molecular cloning that does not exist in natureRestriction enzymesan enzyme that recognizes a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA and cuts the DNA double strand at that recognition site, often with a staggered cut leaving short single strands or "sticky" endsCell walla rigid cell covering made of cellulose in plants, peptidoglycan in bacteria, non-peptidoglycan compounds in Archaea, and chitin in fungi that protects the cell, provides structural support, and gives shape to the cellChloroplasta plant cell organelle that carries out photosynthesisCytoplasmthe entire region between the plasma membrane and the nuclear envelope, consisting of organelles suspended in the gel-like cytosol, the cytoskeleton, and various chemicalsCytoskeletonthe network of protein fibers that collectively maintains the shape of the cell, secures some organelles in specific positions, allows cytoplasm and vesicles to move within the cell, and enables unicellular organisms to moveEukaryoticcell a cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus and several other membrane-bound compartments or sacsFlagellumthe long, hair-like structure that extends from the plasma membrane and is used to move the cellFluid mosaic modela model of the structure of the plasma membrane as a mosaic of components, including phospholipids, cholesterol, proteins, and glycolipids, resulting in a fluid rather than static characterGolgi apparatusa eukaryotic organelle made up of a series of stacked membranes that sorts, tags, and packages lipids and proteins for distributionLysosomean organelle in an animal cell that functions as the cell's digestive component; it breaks down proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids, and even worn-out organellesMitochondriathe cellular organelles responsible for carrying out cellular respiration, resulting in the production of ATP, the cell's main energy-carrying moleculeNucleusthe cell organelle that houses the cell's DNA and directs the synthesis of ribosomes and proteinsOrganellea membrane-bound compartment or sac within a cellPlasma membranea phospholipid bilayer with embedded (integral) or attached (peripheral) proteins that separates the internal contents of the cell from its surrounding environmentRibosomea cellular structure that carries out protein synthesisRough endoplasmic reticulumthe region of the endoplasmic reticulum that is studded with ribosomes and engages in protein modificationSmooth endoplasmic reticulumthe region of the endoplasmic reticulum that has few or no ribosomes on its cytoplasmic surface and synthesizes carbohydrates, lipids, and steroid hormones; detoxifies chemicals like pesticides, preservatives, medications, and environmental pollutants, and stores calcium ionsVacuolea membrane-bound sac, somewhat larger than a vesicle, that functions in cellular storage and transportVesiclea small, membrane-bound sac that functions in cellular storage and transport; its membrane is capable of fusing with the plasma membrane and the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatusActivation energythe amount of initial energy necessary for reactions to occurActive sitea specific region on the enzyme where the substrate bindsAllosteric inhibitionthe mechanism for inhibiting enzyme action in which a regulatory molecule binds to a second site (not the active site) and initiates a conformation change in the active site, preventing binding with the substrateAnabolicdescribes the pathway that requires a net energy input to synthesize complex molecules from simpler onesCatabolicdescribes the pathway in which complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones, yielding energy as an additional product of the reactionEndergonicdescribes a chemical reaction that results in products that store more chemical potential energy than the reactantsKinetic energythe type of energy associated with objects in motionMetabolismall the chemical reactions that take place inside cells, including those that use energy and those that release energySubstratea molecule on which the enzyme actsThermodynamicsthe science of the relationships between heat, energy, and workAutotrophan organism capable of producing its own foodChlorophyllthe green pigment that captures the light energy that drives the reactions of photosynthesisHeterotrophan organism that consumes other organisms for foodPhotoautotrophan organism capable of synthesizing its own food molecules (storing energy), using the energy of lightStomathe opening that regulates gas exchange and water regulation between leaves and the environment; plural: stomataAnaphasethe stage of mitosis during which sister chromatids are separated from each otherAutosomeany of the non-sex chromosomesCell Cycle checkpointsmechanisms that monitor the preparedness of a eukaryotic cell to advance through the various cell cycle stagesCentriolea paired rod-like structure constructed of microtubules at the center of each animal cell centrosomeChromosome inversionthe detachment, 180° rotation, and reinsertion of a chromosome armCrossing overthe exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes resulting in chromosomes that incorporate genes from both parents of the organism forming reproductive cellsCytokinesisthe division of the cytoplasm following mitosis to form two daughter cellsDiploiddescribes a cell, nucleus, or organism containing two sets of chromosomes (2n)G0 phaseG0 phaseGametea haploid reproductive cell or sex cell (sperm or egg)Genethe physical and functional unit of heredity; a sequence of DNA that codes for a specific peptide or RNA moleculeGenomethe entire genetic complement (DNA) of an organismHomologous Chromosomeschromosomes of the same length with genes in the same location; diploid organisms have pairs of homologous chromosomes, and the members of each pair come from different parentsInterphasethe period of the cell cycle leading up to mitosis; includes G1, S, and G2 phases; the interim between two consecutive cell divisionsKaryotypethe number and appearance of an individuals chromosomes, including the size, banding patterns, and centromere positionLocusthe position of a gene on a chromosomeMeiosisa nuclear division process that results in four haploid cellsMitotic spindlethe microtubule apparatus that orchestrates the movement of chromosomes during mitosisRecombinantdescribing something composed of genetic material from two sources, such as a chromosome with both maternal and paternal segments of DNAExergonicdescribes a chemical reaction that results in products with less chemical potential energy than the reactants, plus the release of free energyS phasethe second, or synthesis phase, of interphase during which DNA replication occurs