Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
OCHEM Unit 8
Terms in this set (75)
What are LIPIDS?
fats and oils
What are the 3 LIPID functions in biochemical systems?
energy source and storage system, cell membrane structural component, steroid structures
saturated fatty acid
only single bonds
unsaturated fatty acid
single, double, and/or triple bonds
Is the "packing" potential of a SATURATED fatty acid, favorable or unfavorable? Why?
Is the "packing" potential of an UNSATURATED fatty acid, favorable or unfavorable? Why?
unfavorable, double bonds cause bend in chain
In nature, all UNSATURATED fatty acid alkenes are in the ________________ (cis/trans) variety.
What has a HIGHER BP/MP, a saturated or unsaturated fatty acid?
___________ in the # of carbons--> _________ in BP/MP
___________ in the # of double bonds --> _________ in BP/MP
saturated fatty acid with 18 carbons in the chain
unsaturated fatty acid with 18 carbons in the chain
What is an ESSENTIAL fatty acid?
the body needs but cannot make
What are the 3 representative ESSENTIAL fatty acids?
alpha-Linolenic Acid, Linoleic Acid, and Arachidonic Acid
What are Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids?
18-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids
Most Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids are _______________(essential/nonessential) ________________(saturated/unsaturated)?
Where does the "Omega" nomenclature come from?
counting carbons from the methyl end instead of the carbonyl end
What is the defining structural characteristic of Omega-3 fatty acids?
first double bond at the 3rd carbon from the methyl end
What is the defining structural characteristic of Omega-6 fatty acids?
first double bond at the 6th carbon from the methyl end
What is the general grouping term for hormones derived from Arachidonic Acid?
What are the 3 Eicosanoids?
prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes
What is the biological function of PROSTAGLANDINS?
inflammatory response, gastrointestinal and reproductive health
What is the biological function of THROMBOXANES?
What is the biological function of LEUKOTRIENES?
What are STEROIDS synthesized from?
lipid and carbohydrate metabolites
What is the defining structural characteristic of STEROIDS?
4 fused carbon ring: 3 cyclohexane and 1 cyclopentane
What are the 4 important STEROID structures biosynthesized from Squalene?
cholesterol, bile salts, testosterone and estrogen
What is the biological function of CHOLESTEROL?
regulates fluidity of cell membrane
What is the biological function of BILE SALTS?
helps emulsify dietary fats in digestive tract
What is the biological function of TESTOSTERONE and ESTROGEN?
signal molecules in the development of male and female sex characteristics
Where are BILE SALTS synthesized/processed?
Where are BILE SALTS stored?
What organic molecule are WAXES considered?
long-chain traditional esters
What organic molecules are WAXES derived from?
condensation of long-chai fatty acids and long-chain alcohols
Are WAXES hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
What makes waxes hydrophobic?
high hydrocarbon content and little to no polarity
______________ ester molecule = ________________ wax content
What organic molecule are GLYCERIDES considered?
long-chain nontraditional esters
What functional group are NEUTRAL GLYCERIDES considered?
What organic molecules are NEUTRAL GLYCERIDES derived from?
condensation of glycerol and up to 3 long-chain fatty acids
What are the 3 types of GLYCERIDES?
mono, di, tri
Fatty acids are stores as ______-glycerides in fat cells
What is the value of Physiological pH?
What does CARBOXYLIC ACID exists as at physiological pH?
What does AMINE exists as at physiological pH?
What does PHOSPHOESTER exists as at physiological pH?
CHARGED glycerides are are known as what?
What organic molecules are CHARGED GLYCERIDES derived from?
condensation of a neutral diglyceride and a phosphate group
What is the biological function of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES?
formation of biological membranes
Ethanolamine + Phosphatidate --> ???
Choline + Phosphatidate --> ???
Serine + Phosphatidate --> ???
What is the major component in NERVE CELL STRUCTURE?
What are the major structural differences between phospholipids and sphyngolipids?
sphingolipids have direct connection to 3-carbon unit and have an amide linkage instead of an ester linkage
What forms the basis of all biological membranes?
What happens when a Phosphoglyceride is introduced to an aqueous environment?
spontaneously forms structure the suits their hydrophilic and hydrophobic compnents
The hydrophilic headgroup is on the _______________ (interior/exterior)
The hydrophobic headgroup is on the _______________ (interior/exterior)
What allows for influx/efflux of materials and passing of signals in cellular membranes?
What 2 factors control the FLUIDITY of the membrane interior?
ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid tails within lipid bilayer and amount of cholesterol implanted into membrane
The HIGHER the ratio of saturated fatty acid tails, the ___________ (higher/lower) the fluidity inside the membrane
The LOWER the ratio of saturated fatty acid tails, the ___________ (higher/lower) the fluidity inside the membrane
The HIGHER the amount of cholesterol in the membrane, the ___________ (higher/lower) the fluidity inside the membrane
The LOWER the amount of cholesterol in the membrane, the ___________ (higher/lower) the fluidity inside the membrane
Explain how cholesterol assists in rigidifying cell membrane structure.
creates a long rigid structure which acts as a structural support and collectively rigidifies the membrane
Which steroid structure is the only one that bean and aromatic A-ring?
Give 2 examples of natural waxes found in nature
bees wax and carnauba wax
For which primary biological purpose are NEUTRAL glycerides normally used?
energy source and storage system
For which primary biological purpose are CHARGED glycerides normally used?
cell membrane structure
In what tissue are NEUTRAL glycerides typically stored?
What type of cells are used to store NEUTRAL glycerides?
What is the biological function of SPHYNGOLIPIDS?
nerve cell membrane structure
Sets with similar terms
Biopharm 3312 Chapter 23
CH 19 Lipids
BBMB Ch 11
Sets found in the same folder
OCHEM Exam 1
OCHEM Exam 2
OCHEM Unit 7
OCHEM Unit 9
Other sets by this creator
A&P Block 2 Lecture 2
A&P Block 2 Lecture 1
Block 2 LKC Questions
Recommended textbook solutions
Quantitative Chemical Analysis
Daniel C. Harris
Atkins Physical Chemistry
Julio de Paula, Peter Atkins
Chemistry for Engineering Students
Lawrence S. Brown, Thomas A. Holme
Kenneth A. Goldsby, Raymond Chang
Other Quizlet sets
Naplex - Infectious Disease (ID)
MGMT 1120 Ch 4 Test
Intro to Financial Management - Exam 1