visible light is passed through the specimen and then through glass lenses which light is refracted in such a way that the image of the specimen is magnified as it is projected; types: bright field, phase-contrast, fluorescence, confocal
focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or onto its surface; hundredfold improvement over standard light microscope; SEM and TEM
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
used for detailed study of the topography of a specimen; creates 3D image of cells
transmission electron microscope (TEM)
used to study the internal structure of cells; specimen stained;
a centrifuge is used to take cells apart and separate major organelles and other sub cellular structures from one another; process is by spinning the test tubes at high speeds
lack a true nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles of the eukaryotic cell; much simpler in structure; include bacteria and archaea;
protists, fungi, animals and plants are composed of eukaryotic cells; most DNA is contained in the double membrane bound nucleus
all cells are bounded by the plasma membrane, have cytosol, chromosomes, and ribosomes
inside all cells there is a semifluid, jellylike substance called cytosol in which subcelluar components are suspended
in eukaryotic cells, this term refers only to the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
selective barrier that allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients and wastes to service the entire cell
reinforces cells shape; functions in cell movement; components are made of protein. includes microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules
organelle active in synthesis, modification, sorting, and secretion of cell products
organelle with various specialized metabolic functions; produces hydrogen peroxide as a by-product, then converts it to water
region located near the nucleus where the cells microtubules are initiated; contains a pair of centrioles
motility structure present in some animal cells, composed of a cluster of microtubules within an extension of the plasma membrane
network of membranous sacs and tubes; active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes; composed of rough er and smooth er
composed of: nuclear envelope, nucleolus and chromatin; contain most of genes(DNA) in eukaryotic cell
a netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
nonmembranous structure involved in production of ribosomes; a nucleus has one or more nucleoli; synthesizes rRNA from instructions in DNA
material consisting of DNA and proteins; visible in a dividing cell as individual condensed chromosomes
outer layer that maintains cells shape and protects cell from mechanical damage; made of cellulose, other polysaccharides and protein
photosynthetic organelle; converts energy of sunlight to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules
composed of: nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various kinds of vesicles and vacuoles and plasma membrane; membranes of this system are related either through direct physical continuity or by the transfer of membrane segments as tiny vesicles
functions of endomembrane system
synthesis of proteins, transport of proteins into membranes and organelles or out of the cell, metabolism and movement of lipids, and detoxification of poisons
enzymes of smooth ER are important in the synthesis of lipids, detoxify drugs and poisons(esp. in liver cells), stores calcium ions
"warehouse" for receiving, sorting, shipping, and even some manufacturing; consist of stacks of flattened sacs (cisternae) not physically connected
"trans" face of golgi apparatus
"dispatches vesicles"; gives rise to vesicles that pinch off and travel to other sites
digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed; digest materials taken into the cell
carried out by lysosomes: engulfing smaller organisms or food particles; macrophages (white blood cells that engulfs and destroy bacteria)
pump excess water out of the cell, thereby maintaining a suitable concentration of ions and molecules inside the cell
develops by the coalescence of smaller vacuoles; plays a major role in growth of cells by enabling the cell to become larger with a minimal investment in new cytoplasm
sites of cellular respiration, the metabolic process that uses oxygen to generate ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats, and other fuels
membranes divide space into 3 compartments: inter membrane space, stroma and thylakoid space. found in plants and algae; sites of photosynthesis; convert solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds such as sugars from carbon dioxide and water
theory states that an early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed an oxygen-using non photosynthetic prokaryotic cell. eventually, the engulfed cell formed a relationship with the host cell in which it was enclosed, becoming an endosymbiont; over the course of evolution, the host cell and its endosymbiont merged into a single organism, a eukaryotic cell with a mitochondrion
fluid outside the thylakoids that contains the chloroplast DNA and ribosomes as well as many enzymes
family of closely related plant organelles; amyloplast: a colorless organelle that stores starch(amylose), particularly in roots and tubers; another is the chromoplast, which has pigments that give fruits and flowers their orange and yellow hues
a specialized metabolic compartment bounded by a single membrane; contain enzymes that removes hydrogen atoms from various substrates and transfer them to oxygen producing hydrogen peroxide as a by-product.
network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm; composed of 3 types of molecular structures: microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments
hollow tubes; functions: maintenance of cell shape, guide organelle movement, and separate chromosomes in dividing cells
two intertwined strands of actin; functions: maintenance of cell shape, changes in cell shape, muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming, cell motility, and cell division
fibrous proteins supercoiled into thicker cables; functions: maintenance of cell shape, anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles, and formation of nuclear lamina
structurally similar to a centriole; anchors a microtubule assembly of a cilium or flagellum
In cilia and flagella, a large motor protein extending from one microtubule doublet to the adjacent doublet. ATP hydrolysis drives changes in dynein shape that lead to bending of cilia and flagella.
A type of motor protein that associates into filaments that interact with actin filaments to cause cell contraction.
a circular flow of cytoplasm within cells that speeds the distribution of materials within the cell
secondary cell wall
between plasma membrane and primary cell wall; has a strong and durable matrix that affords the cell protection and support
extracellular matrix (ECM)
The meshwork surrounding animal cells, consisting of glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and proteoglycans synthesized and secreted by the cells.
A large molecule consisting of a small core protein with many carbohydrate chains attached, found in the extracellular matrix of animal cells. A proteoglycan may consist of up to 95% carbohydrate.
An extracellular glycoprotein secreted by animal cells that helps them attach to the extracellular matrix.
In animal cells, a transmembrane receptor protein with two subunits that interconnects the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.
An open channel through the cell wall that connects the cytoplasm of adjacent plant cells, allowing water, small solutes, and some larger molecules to pass between the cells.
"anchoring junctions" function like rivets, fastening ells together in strong sheets. attach muscle cells to each other in a muscle.