Biology 2 AP Midterm Review Part 2
Part 2, On the outline, this is from "Carbohydrates" to "Nucleic Acids" Part 3: http://quizlet.com/690075/biology-2-ap-midterm-review-part-3-flash-cards/
Terms in this set (34)
Most abundant molecule, consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in 1:2:1 ratio.
Carbohydrates can be used as...
Structural Materials, Transport energy, store energy
One sugar monomer, simplest carbohydrate. Has at least 2 -OH groups, Dissolve easily in water. Mostly used as main energy source. EX:Glucose or Glycerol
Two sugar monomer, Include lactose, sucrose, maltose,
Short chain of covalently bonded sugar monomers (oglio means few)
Complex carbohydrates that are straight or branched. They contain many sugar monomers. EX:cellulose, starch, glycogen) They consist only of glucose
stores sugar in animals. Muscles and Liver cells store alot of this sugar.
Stores sugar in plant cells.
Nonpolar hydrocarbons. Don't dissolve in water well, but can dissolve in nonpolar substances
Lipids can be used as...
energy stores, structural materials, and signaling molecules
Lipid that have one, two, or three fatty acids attached to glycerol
The part of fats that have a backbone of 36 carbon atoms, a carboxyl group (-COOH) at one end, and hydrogen atoms occupying the remaining bonding sites. They Have a flexible tail.
Unsaturated Tails on Fatty Acids have how many bonds? ...
Have one or more double bonds
Saturated tails on fatty acids have how many bonds.?...
Have single bonds only
Lipid that is a Neutral fat, EX:Butter, lard, veggy oil, natural fats. Most abundant lipid in our body.
Lipid that has a glycerol backbone, 2 fatty acid tails, and a hydrophilic head with a phosphate group and another polar group
Lipid with no fatty acids. They differ in number, position, and type functional groups. Have 4 fused carbon rings. EX: Cholesterol, which gets transformed into vitamin D or steroids
Lipid that has long chain fatty acids that are tightly packed and linked to long-chain alcohols or carbon rings. They repel water and are lubricating.
Most diverse of all Biological Molecules, includes Amino Acids
Protein, small organic compound consisting of a basic amino group, acidic carboxyl group, and hydrogen atom and others (R group)
Amino Acid Chain where peptide bonds join 3 amino acids.
Convalent bond that forms between the amino group (-NH3+) and carboxyl group (-COO-).
A protein's amino acid sequence
Proteins that have polypeptide chains arranged as strands or sheets
Proteins that have one or more chains folded in compact, rounded shapes.
The breaking of weak bonds of a protein or any other large molecule that disrupts its 3-d shape. (you can cook an egg, but you can't uncook a cooked egg. mmm...eggs...)
Small organic compound consisting of a sugar, at least one phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base.
Nucleotide, Adenosine Triphosphate, can readily transfer phosphate group to give energy to other molecules.
Enzyme helpers that accept hydrogen atoms and electrons to transfer them to different sites on a cell.
Nucleotides serve as what?
Building blocks for larger molecules called nucleic acids
Strands of single/double molecules connected by covalent bonded sugars and phosphate groups.
double stranded molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid consisting of adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine.
Ribonucleic acid, single stranded nucleic acid, consist of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil.
RNA does what?,,,,
Encodes protein-building instructions, act as messengers to translate code into proteins.