Civil Rights Unit Test
Terms in this set (51)
Former Confederates adopted laws limiting freedmen. Closely resembled pre-Civil War codes.
Republicans like Thaddeus Stevens and Frederick Douglass who insisted that African Americans be given the right to vote.
Civil Rights Act 1866
First civil rights law in US history.
Declared everyone born in the US was a citizen with full civil rights. Designed to overturn 1857 Supreme Court Dred Scott ruling that African Americans were not citizens.
Agency established by Congress in 1865 to help southerners left homeless and hungry by the civil war.
1866 amendment required states to extend equal citizenship to African Americans and all people born or naturalized in the US; ensured due process of law; equal protection of the laws.
1870 Amendment - Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or previous condition of servitude.
A northerner who traveled to the South during the Reconstruction period to participate in the political reorganization of the South often for profit; carrying everything they owned in a cheap suitcase.
Contemptous name for a Southern white who had backed the Union cause and now supported Reconstruction
Ku Klux Klan
A group founded in 1866 that was determined to destroy the Republican party and take away Civil Rights from African Americans. 1920s it had as much as 5 million members. They held rallies to support the group.
He violated the Tenure act and on May 16, 1868, Senate voted to aquit the President. One vote short of impeachment.
Compromise of 1877
Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.
Plessey vs Ferguson 1896
Homer Plessey was denied a seat in a first class railway car. In 1896 the Court decided that "separate but equal" facilities didn't violate the 14th amendment.
The Jim Crow Era
A time when almost everything was segregated between African Americans and whites, with the nicer things going to the whites.
First African American to get Ph.D. at Harvard. He urged African Americans to get the best education they can. Helped create the NAACP in 1909 and wrote The Souls of Black Folk.
Booker T. Washington
Prominent African American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, founded Tuskegee Institute in 1881.
Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper economically.
Ida B. Wells-Barnett
African American was an anti-lynching suffragist, women's rights advocate, journalist, and speaker. She was a former slave.
Marcus Garvey - UNIA
A political leader who founded the United Negro Improvement Association which supported the resettlement of Americna blacks back in their homeland. Black stores and businesses were opened to keep the "black money in black pockets".
Formed partly because of lynching and race riots, a call was made by descendants of abolitionists was signed by 60 people. Now it has over 500,000 members in the U.S.A.
A scuffle broke out after a white soilder tried to take an American Indian's gun. Gunshots broke out, and soon enough, 150 American Indians out of the 320 were killed.
The struggle to attain voting rights for women; adopted attention-getting protest tactics used by British suffragists
1920 - amendment granted women full voting rights
National American Woman Suffrage Association founded in 1890, its first two presidents were Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. Took a nonpartisan, local approach.
Carrie Chapman Catt
NAWSA'S highly skilled leader who energized the organization by using traditional political strategies to attain voting rights for women. 1915
National Women's Party
1916 - Formed by Alice Paul, broke away from NAWSA. Focused on passing a constitutional amendment guaranteeing women the right to vote.
1914 - A militant young Quaker suffragist who studied in Britain. She organized the National Women's Party which adopted a national rather than state-by-state strategy.
The Great Migration
1915-1930; mass movement of African Americans from the South to the North; reasons: more/bettter jobs in the North, prejudice in the South, crop failures in the South; leads to race riots in the North
a period in the 1920s when African American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
Racial tension in the late 1910s and the 1920s. About the move of African Americans from southern farms to cities.
A poem by Abel Meerole, turned into a song and sung by Billy Holiday in 1939
A 14-year-old African American boy who was beaten and lynched in Mississippi for supposedly whistling at a white woman while visiting from Chicago. Happened in 1955
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Little Rock Nine
Nine black teenagers who integrated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957 and became the focus of a national crisis that required the intervention of federal troops to resolve.
NAACP member who initiated the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 when she was arrested for violating Jim Crow rules on a bus. It was led by MLK
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a civil rights organization led by Martin Luther King Jr. They, along with all of the other civil rights organizations, marched on Washington in 1963.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee was a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination (sit-ins, etc.)
Congress of Racial Equality was a northern based civil rights group. They hoped to launch more nonviolent protests.
Dr.Martin Luther King Jr.
An African American preacher that was a civil rights leader working for equal rights for African Americans in the 1950's and 1960's nonviolently. He gave the famous "I Have a Dream" speech. He was assassinated in 1968
Before he was arrested, X was a Black Power movement leader. Supported violent responses to actions of whites. While in prison, studied Elijah Muhammad, head of Nation of Islam, or Black Muslims. After his release from prison in 1952, became a minister of the Islamic religion, and was an engaging speaker. Assassinated in 1965.
Leader of the Black Muslims and the Nation of Islam from 1934 until his death in 1975. He also was an early important teacher and mentor to Malcolm X
Birmingham, Alabama was the central station for racial protests and violence from the police. Much of the violence was televised to show the world the horrors of how blacks were really treated.
location of the start of the voting rights march that came to be known as Bloody Sunday. (March 7, 1965)
Freedom Riders rode in interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the ruling of unsegregated public places
Goodman, Schwerner, and Chaney
Three men part of operation Freedom Summer. Trained in non violent forms of protest and voter registration and freedom schools. Within one week of freedom summer, these three guys went missing and later found dead. Spring, 1964
June 1969. Cops try to arrest gays and shut down a bar which leads to a riot and illustrates that gays were going to fight back. New York
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
Equal Rights Amentment
An amendment first proposed in 1923 saying that women and men have equal rights under law. In 1972 it got ratified by 35 out of the 38 necessary.
Wounded Knee Protest
(1973) American Indian Movement (AIM) they wanted the USA to have hearings on past broken treaties and investigate alleged BIA misconduct. The Sioux and the marshals had a standoff (71 days long). Many people put on trial for wounded knee incident but the case was dismissed
programs intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities 1970s
University of California v. Bakke
1978 The Supreme Court ruled that a white man Allan Bakke had been unfairly denied admission to medical school on the basis of quotas. The court did not rule out all forms of affirmative action, but it did strike down the quota system