History Chap 12
Terms in this set (101)
a rapid period of growth in using machines for manufacturing and production that began in the mid 1700s
invented a large spinning machine called a water frame
a skilled British mechanic who dressed up as a farmer in order to immigrate to the US after memorizing designs of textile mills
the tools used to produce items or to do work
an inventor who proposed the idea of mass producing weapons and machinery
parts os a machine that are identical (proposed by Eli Whitney)
the efficient production of large numbers of identical goods
Rhode Island system
Slater's strategy of hiring families and dividing factory work into simple tasks
Francis Cabot Lowell
A businessman from New England; developed a different approach to running textile mills
Based on water powered textile mills that employed young unmarried women from local farms. The system included a loom that could both spin thread and weave cloth in the same mill.
groups that tried to improve pay and working conditions
Workers that refuse to work until their employers meet their demands
Sarah G. Bagley
A lowell girl who believed that most of the girls would live their jobs if given the option and that they only work in order to provide for their families
A period of rapid growth in the speed and convenience of travel because of new methods of transportation
Tested first version of steamboat in France, 1803
The first commercial full-sized steamboat
Gibbons vs. Ogden
A supreme court ruling that reinforced the federal government's authority over the states
Inventor of the locomotive Tom Thumb
Samuel F B. Morse
inventor of the telegraph
a machine built by Samuel F. B. Morse that could send messages over wires across long distances
invented by morse's partner, Alfred Lewis Vail
steel bladed plow
rebuilt the sewing machine
How did machines speed up textile manufacturing?
What provided the power for the machines in the mill?
water from rivers or streams
How did Eli Whitney influence American manufacturing?
Eli influenced American manufacturing by introducing the idea of mass production and interchangeable part of which are standard today
How do interchangeable parts help the modern assembly line work?
it helped to assemble machines quicker and more efficiently as well as made repairs and replacements more convenient
How did the War of 1812 aid the growth of American manufacturing?
The War of 1812 aided the growth of American manufacturing because it forced people to rely more on american companies due to the cut off from foreign imported goods. This in turn helped to grow American factories and manufacturers began spending more money towards expanding their factories.
What was the first industry to begin to use machines to manufacture goods?
the textile industry
In what ways might life for workers change as a result of the Industrial Revolution?
In what part of the United States were most mills located? Why?
Northeast because the south was mainly focused on agriculture and the had a lack of water supplies for the mills
How did the ideas of Samuel Slater and Eli Whitney affect manufacturing in the United States?
Slater and Whitney's ideas affected manufacturing because it made the process more efficient and quicker helping to set modern standards in the manufacturing industry.
Whose contributions do you think were more important-Slater's textile machines or Whitney's interchangeable parts? Why?
i think Whitney's interchangeable parts idea was more important because he made not only assembly more convenient, but also repairs and has revolutionized modern day standards for the production of goods
What event encouraged the growth of American manufacturing? Why?
In the mid 1700s, the expansion of cities and populations drove people to conjure up new ways to manufacture goods since the traditional methods didn't produce enough for everyone, leading up to the Industrial Revolution.
Why was manufacturing in Great Britain in the early years more successful than that in the United States?
Manufacturing in Great Britain in the early years was more successful because unlike America, the land in Great Britain was scarce and more expensive. As a result, fewer people owned farms and more turned to factory jobs and were willing to be payed less. Because of the abundance of factory workers, they could produce large amounts of goods faster and cheaper than American businesses.
What problem did Slater have in his mills, and how did he solve it?
Slater's problem was that he couldn't find enough people to work in the mills due to the abundance of jobs. He solved this problem at first by hiring young men as apprentices and then moved on to hiring families who moved to Pawtucket instead. This turned into what is known as the Rhode Island system
How was the Lowell system different from the Rhode Island system?
The difference is that the Rhode Island system recruited families from Pawtucket whereas the Lowell system hired young unmarried women from local farms and it included a loom
How did Bagley view the idea that workers must endure poor conditions?
Bagley believed that the majority of the mill girls wouldn't stay if they could and in addition Bagley says that the mill girls work to help their family members
Why did workers form unions, and what were the main goals of union reformers?
workers formed unions in order to try and improve pay and working conditions; the main goal of union reformers was to influence an investigation of working conditions and obtain a 10 hour work day.
What problems did many mill owners have in finding workers?
Mill owners couldn't find enough employees since there was an abundance of jobs
How did Samuel Slater's Rhode Island system change employment practices in mills?
Slater's Rhode Island System changed employment practices in mills because it set the trend of hiring families to work in the factory mills.
What was life like for mill workers in the Lowell system?
Life in the Lowell System was difficult because of the 12 to 14 hour days and daily life was very controlled with a strict time table.
Why would young women have wanted to go to work in the Lowell mills?
To provide for family and have a job for four years
Why did workers form trade unions ?
trade unions were formed in order to try to improve pay and working conditions
What are some possible problems that might arise between factory owners and trade unions?
Due to strikes by trade unions, factory owners won't want to hire them since they require higher wages
What benefits did the Transportation Revolution bring to trade and daily life?
It brought :
-faster methods of transportation
-faster and easier communication
-lowered shipping time and costs
Explain the effects of the Gibbons vs Ogden ruling.
Gibbons v. Ogden prevented states from establishing or enforcing similar monopolistic transportation laws, encouraging growth of steamboat travel and cargo shipping. This expanded trade opportunities between states, boosting states' economies. Landlocked states were better able to participate in regional trade because they gained access to all navigable US waters. The decision in Gibbons created opportunities for the development of more efficient and sophisticated means of transporting people and goods, such as the railroad.
In what ways did railroads affect the economy of the United States?
railroads affected the economy by making travel more convenient and helping to haul more freight and goods from place to place more efficiently
What role did railroads play in the growth of the coal industry?
it replaced timber and was more efficient in fueling the locomotives
What forms of transportation were improved or invented at this time?
steamboats were improved and could now go upstream
What effect did the Transportation Revolution have on the United States?
it helped improve the duration of time goods took to travel also helping to reduce shipping costs
What were the benefits of steamboat travel?
it could go upstream
What effect did the ruling in the Gibbons v. Ogden case have on federal government?
What event showed the power and speed of locomotives?
How did railroads affect trade and business in the United States?
Why do you think Americans were fascinated by railroads?
What physical obstacles did railroad construction in the United States face?
What effects did the Transportation Revolution have on the U.S. economy?
Do you think the Transportation Revolution played a role in deforestation? Explain.
yes because since the railroad system was frequently used and in order to run the locomotive, originally timber had to be used and cut down.
What event led to the widespread use of the telegraph, and what effect did the telegraph have on cross-country communications?
The Democratic National Convention in Baltimore led to the widespread use of the telegraph; the telegraph affect communication because now people from both coasts of the US could speak more efficiently and quickly
What marketing methods did McCormick use to help sell his farm equipment?
he used the idea of credit and also gave demonstrations on how his product worked
How did laborsaving inventions affect daily life?
How did the telegraph work?
it sent out pulses which reads as dots and dashes
What impact might the telegraph have on the future of the United States?
the telegraph led to even faster communication i.e. cellphones, email
How did water-powered factories differ from steam-powered factories?
water powered factories had to be close to water
How did the shift to steam power lead to the growth of cities?
What contributions did Cyrus McCormick and John Deere make to farming?
McCormick invented the mechanical reaper
Deere created a steel bladed plow
What effect did new inventions have on agriculture in the United States?
What inventions improved life at home?
Which invention do you think had the greatest effect on the daily lives of Americans? Why?
The system of __________ was developed to represent letters of the alphabet when sending telegraph messages.
The first American woman to hold a high ranking position in the labor movement was __________
The __________ was a period of rapid growth in the use of machines and manufacturing.
The first locomotive in the United States was built by ______
Workers would sometimes go on ______________to force factory owners to meet their demands for better pay and working conditions.
The __________ industry, which produced cloth items, was the first to use machines for manufacturing.
What ideas did Eli Whitney want to apply to the manufacture of guns?
How did the War of 1812 lead to a boom in manufacturing in the United States?
Why do you think the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain rather than in the United States?
What was mill life like?
How did the Rhode Island system and the Lowell system change the lives of American workers?
Were reformers such as Sarah G. Bagley effective in improving labor conditions? Why?
How were Americans affected by the introduction of steamboats?
How did railroad companies become some of the most powerful businesses in the country?
What was the most important result of the Transportation Revolution? Why?
What important change took place in how factories were powered?
How did the telegraph affect communication in the United States?
Do you think moving factories close to cities helped or hurt working life? Explain.
What are the three most important inventions of the Industrial Revolution? Why?
What was the overall effect of the Industrial Revolution on the U.S. economy?
Many young women came to Lowell from across New England. They wanted the chance to eam money instead of working on the family farm.
According to the passage above, what was a cause for moving to Lowell?
a. working long hours
b. earning money
c. meeting people
d. working on a farm
"Is anyone such a fool as to suppose that out of six thousand factory girls in Lowell, sixty would be there if they could help it?"
Do you think that Bagley's opposition to the Lowell system was unfairly biased? Why or why not?
No, she is simply more knowledgeable on the system at the Lowell factory mill because of having worked there
The first machines of the Industrial Revolution were powered by ,
The earliest important evidence of the Industrial Revolution in America was found in
A the way cotton was processed for market.
B the production of tobacco products.
C the manufacture of cloth and thread.
D the construction of the first steam railroads.
Which of the following was a development of the Transportation Revolution of the mid-1800s?
B wind-powered boats
C diesel freighters
D steam-powered trains
What change in technology allowed business owners to sell their goods in markets across the country?
A the Lowell system
B the growth of railroads
C the invention of the telegraph
D the Arkwright system
Eli Whitney's idea of interchangeable parts resulted in
A the dominance of American manufacturing.
B the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
C a rapid expansion of railroads.
D the mass production of goods.
The inventions of John Deere and Cyrus McCormick
A improved communication.
B introduced two new factory labor systems.
C helped increase agricultural production in the United States.
D led to manufacturing breakthroughs in the textile industry.
'The little money I could earn—one dollar a week, besides the price of my board— was needed in the family, and I must retu from home] to the mill... I began to reflect on life rather seriously for a girl of twelve or thirteen. What was I here for? What would I make of myself? ... We did not forget that we were working girls ... clearing away a few weeds from the overgrown track of independent labor for other women ... [so that] no real odium [disrespect] could be attached to any honest toil that any self-respecting woman might undertake.-" —from A New England Girlhood by Lucy Larcom (1824-1893)
How did Larcom see the role of women changing in the workforce?