The ESL teacher understands how to promote students' literacy development in English. The beginning ESL teacher: • Knows applicable Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), especially the English Language Arts and Reading curriculum as it relates to ESL, and knows how to design and implement appropriate instruction to address TEKS related to the reading and writing strands. • Understands the interrelatedness of listening, speaking, reading, and writing and uses this knowledge to select and use effective strategies for developing students' literacy in English. • Understands that English is an alphabetic language and applies effective strategies for developing ESL students' phonological knowledge and skills (e.g., phonemic awareness skills, knowledge of English letter-sound associations, knowledge of common English phonograms) and sight-word vocabularies (e.g., phonetically irregular words, high-frequency words). • Knows factors that affect ESL students' reading comprehension (e.g., vocabulary, text structures, cultural references) and applies effective strategies for facilitating ESL students' reading comprehension in English. • Applies knowledge of effective strategies for helping students transfer literacy knowledge and skills from L1 to L2. • Applies knowledge of individual differences (e.g., developmental characteristics, cultural and language background, academic strengths, learning styles) to select instructional strategies and resources that facilitate ESL students' literacy development. • Knows personal factors that affect ESL students' English literacy development (e.g., interrupted schooling, literacy status in the primary language, prior literacy experiences) and applies effective strategies for addressing those factors.