Human Nutrition Unit 3

A scientist is creating a formula diet that supplies all essential nutrients. She knows the RDA/AI for each mineral, one of which has an AI of 30 mg/day. How should she classify this particular mineral?
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Dehydration can cause ________.deathWhich of the following statements is true? -Most of the water that enters the digestive tract is excreted in feces. -Cells produce water as a by-product of metabolism. -Water and beverages comprise 100% of a person's total water intake. -In general, fruits and vegetables are less than 25% water by weight.Cells produce water as a by-product of metabolism.This mineral can contribute to hypertension when consumed in excessTrace mineralWhich of the following groups of people has the highest risk of magnesium deficiency?Alcoholic menExcessive magnesium is most often caused byexcessive intake of laxatives or antacidsThe movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane is called ________.osmosisThe mineral found in the body in the most abundance iscalciumWhich of the following is not considered a key function of zinc? Proper function of the immune system Bone health Wound healing Growth and developmentBone healthChristine loves to eat Brazil nuts and canned oysters. These food items are rich sources of ________.seleniumDental fluorosis is characterized by ________.abnormal changes in the appearance of tooth enamelJared is a vegan. He can increase his intestinal tract's ability to absorb iron in his diet by combining iron-rich plant foods with sources of ________.vitamin CThe body absorbs and uses ________ for synthesizing thyroid hormone.iodideWhich of the following foods is an excellent source of heme iron?Beef steakThe most dependable and abundant source of iodide in the American diet isfortified salt.Consuming too much selenium results in ________.selenosisWhich of the following minerals enhances the action of insulin?Chromium________ is an iron-containing protein in muscle that is responsible for oxygen uptake from red blood cells.MyoglobinWhich of the following is not considered a key function of zinc?Bone healthCuproenzymes are group of enzymes that contain ________.copperWhich of the following are functions of cuproenzymes? Collagen formation Antioxidant activity Iron storage and transportation Formation of myelinAll of the choices are correct.Marty has hemochromatosis. Which of the following supplements should he avoid taking?IronA young man in a rural Iranian village eats very little meat and dairy products, but his diet contains a lot of unleavened whole-grain flat bread. He is very short for his age; his sexual organs are not fully developed; his intelligence is lower than normal; and he suffers from iron-deficiency anemia. Based on this information, the man probably has a(n) ________ deficiency.zincWhich of the following increases iron bioavailability?Consumption of foods rich in vitamin CThe amount of selenium in foodsdepends on the amount of selenium in the soil where crops are grown.Marta is a pregnant woman suffering from severe iodine deficiency. As a result of the deficiency, she has a high risk of giving birth to a child with ________.cretinismIn iron-deficiency anemia, the red blood cells are usually classified asmicrocytic and hypochromic.Chester's BMI is 35.3. According to his food records, he consumes an average of 2800 kcal/day. He would like to lose 10 pounds in one year by reducing his daily caloric intake. Based on this information, Chester should consume approximately ________ kcal/day.2100________ typically occurs around abdominal organs and in the omentum, an apron-like structure that hangs over the stomach and intestines.Visceral fatWhich of the following hormones stimulates hunger sensations?GhrelinA deficiency of which vitamin would be common following bariatric surgery.vitamin B-12The ________ is often used to predict basal calorie needs in persons who have excess body fat.Mifflin-St.Jeor equationThe weather over the winter was colder than usual, with typical days in the subzero temperature range and snow and ice common. Because of this, Drea was often cold and shivering when walking between classes. Shivering is an example of ________.nonexercise activity thermogenesisThe ________ controls hunger and satiety.hypothalmusThe weight-loss medication orlistat (Xenical) ________.reduces the amount of fat absorbed by the digestive tractAccording to the American College of Sports Medicine, adults should perform ________ minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity to prevent weight gain.150-250Ashley's BMI is 23.7. Based on this information, her weight is in the ________ range.healthy (normal)Which of the following factors contributes to an increase in a person's BMR? Shorter height Stress Aging Following a very-low-calorie dietstressWhat can an individual do to see if their genes have a greater influence on their weight?.get a genetic risk scoreWhich of the following persons is in a state of positive energy balance?A 25-year-old woman who is in her 6th month of pregnancyWhich of the following methods is not useful for estimating total energy expenditure?Waistline measurementsWhich of the following statements is true? Fat cells produce leptin, a hormone that can reduce hunger. People with "thrifty" metabolisms burn more fat per hour than other people. Satiety is the feeling that drives a person to consume food. Ghrelin is an enzyme that breaks down fat in the stomach.Fat cells produce leptin, a hormone that can reduce hunger.Which of the following is not a factor that are related to the mother's helath during pregnancy?Mother's daily exercise regimen during pregnancy________ fat is located deep within the abdominal region and protects digestive organs.VisceralWhich of the following is not a health condition typcially associated with overweight and obesity?GlaucomaPeople who have bulimia nervosa typically avoid gaining weight after bingeing on food by ________.purging, including self-induced vomiting________ refers to a condition in which people with type 1 diabetes manipulate their body weight by skipping insulin injections or using less insulin than prescribed.DiabulimiaJana's BMI is 25.5. She skips breakfast and usually eats a salad for lunch. While she is with friends, she eats large amounts of cookies, pastries, and ice cream. After eating such foods, she excuses herself to go to the bathroom. Her friends are amazed that she doesn't gain weight. Based on this information, Jana may have ________.bulimia nervosaDuring a dental examination, the dentist notices that the enamel on the back sides of Andrew's teeth has eroded, and the some of the teeth are decaying. Based on this information, the dentist suspects that Andrew ________.frequently makes himself vomit after eatingTo counteract the binge, the bulimic patient may ________. take laxatives over-exercise induce vomiting All of these choices are accurate.All of these choices are accurate.Sam works out at the gym lifting weights two to three hours daily. Despite his intense workout routine, Sam feels his body is still too small and not muscular enough. Based on this information, Sam may have ________.muscle dysmorphiaRepeated self-induced vomiting may cause ________. tears in the esophagus electrolyte imbalances stomach ulcers tooth demineralization All of these choices are correct.All of these choices are correct.Typical treatment for eating disorders includes ________.professional counselingWhich of the following behaviors is typical of someone who has disordered eating but not an eating disorder?Skipping breakfast when late for an examAll of the following are common physiological consequences of anorexia nervosa EXCEPT ________. hypotension (low blood pressure) dehydration decreased metabolic rate rapid heart raterapid heart rateThe major health risk from frequent vomiting due to bulimia nervosa is ________.potassium imbalanceConditions associated with the female athlete triad include ________.reduced bone mineral densityWhich of the following is NOT associated with binge-eating disorder?purgingWhich of the following statements is true? People with night eating syndrome believe they can only fall asleep by having a full stomach. Night eating syndrome is the same as sleepwalking. People with night eating syndrome do not experience any episodic food binges. People with night eating syndrome have a huge appetite in the morning.People with night eating syndrome believe they can only fall asleep by having a full stomach.Which of the following statements is true? Binge-eating disorder is the most serious eating disorder, because 36% of people with the condition commit suicide. According to the DSM-5, there are two main types of eating disorders that physicians can diagnose: bulimia and anorexia. Young women are more likely to develop muscle dysmorphia than young men. Disordered eating practices are usually temporary, and occur when the person is under stress.Disordered eating practices are usually temporary, and occur when the person is under stress.Endurance athletes who engage in at least one hour of moderate to high-intensity exercise should consume ________ of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight daily.6 to 10 gramsWhich vitamin is most important for preserving bone health in athletes?Vitamin DAll of the following are common ingredients in sports drinks EXCEPT ________.excess caffeineAccording to the American College of Sports Medicine, a dietary protein intake of ________ may be necessary for athletes engaged in regular moderate- and high-intensity physical activity.1.2 to 2.0 grams/kg body weight/dayIn order for an individual to maintain an exercise regimen it helps if ________.the exercise is built into a daily routineLance's goal is to win a marathon bicycle race. He trains aerobically for at least 90 minutes daily. In general, how many more kcal per day should Lance consume?50 kcalFatty-acid molecules provide MOST of the energy forlong-term activity such as a long walk.Which of the following statements is true? Exercise-associated muscle cramps are a unique type of muscle spasm that occur along the digestive tract during exercise. Dehydration can result in declines in an athlete's strength and endurance. Exercise-associated muscle cramps are life-threatening and require emergency treatment. A person suffering from exercise-associated muscle cramps typically has a body temperature of 105ºF or higher.Dehydration can result in declines in an athlete's strength and endurance.This system of energy production can provide the most energy.Oxygen energy systemThis type of stretching involves holding the position for a certain period of time.staticThe top of the Physical Activity Pyramid emphasizes activities thatwe should do less of, such as watching TV.Under anaerobic conditions, muscle cells convert pyruvate to ________.lactic acidWhat is considered the most rpaid way for a pre-event meal to be in the form of to ensure one's stomach does not feel full?blended or in liquid formBy performing exercise regularly, people can reduce their risk of ________.cardiovascular diseaseWhich of the following statements is true? Dietitians generally recommend very-low-fat diets for healthy athletes. Most physically active people should consume 20 to 35% of their total energy intake from fat. Trained athletes are unable to compete when fat comprises 65% of their total energy intake. Athletes and other physically active people should avoid diets that supply more than 15% of total energy from fat.Most physically active people should consume 20 to 35% of their total energy intake from fat.When an athlete takes branched-chain amino acids he or she can expect all of the following effects EXCEPT ________.preventing dehydrationThe difference between physical activity and exercise is ________.exercise is planned and purpposeful."Hitting the wall" is a term to describe ________.someone has essentially run out of available carbohydrates for energyIn high-intensity exercise, such as sprinting, the predominant fuel for exercise is ________.carbohydrates