Thinking, Language, and Intelligence M/C Exam

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In Howard Gardner's research he found evidence of multiple intelligences in individuals who were scoring low on intelligence but were exceptional in other areas. What is this called?

- EQ
- divergent success
- creativity
- the Flynn effect
- savant syndrome
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In Wolfgang Kohler's famous experiment with the chimpanzee who was able to reach the fruit by first retrieving a short stick, then using it to retrieve a long stick, then the fruit the concept of ____________ was illustrated.

- functional fixedness
- insight
- the availability heuristic
- artificial intelligence
- a fixation
If you were to listen to the babbling of babies from North America, Asia, Europe, and Africa which of the following would be true?

- African children would babble with more variation in sound.
- North American babies would babble faster than the others.
- Asian babies would babble faster than the others.
- No difference in babbling could be heard.
- You would be able to tell them apart by distinct sound differences.
"Empathy", "dog", and "anger" are all: - prototypes. - heuristics. - phonemes. - concepts. - theories.- concepts. A psychological concept is a mental grouping of an idea, similar objects, people, or events.Which of the following is credited with creating the most widely used intelligence test today? - Louis Terman - Howard Gardner - Alfred Binet - David Wechsler - Robert Sternberg- David Wechsler David Wechsler created the Wechselr Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) which contains verbal and performance subtests.Ellen an emergency room nurse believes that more babies are born on full moons than not. Subsequently she tracks the number of patients admitted in labor on a full moon and not on other night. This can best be explained by: - belief bias. - functional fixedness. - the framing effect. - confirmation bias. - the representativeness heuristic.- confirmation bias. Confirmation bias is the tendency only to look for information that confirms our beliefs while ignoring other information.The arrangement of words and sounds to create well formed sentences in language is called? - semantics - phomemes - morphemes - syntax - heuristics- syntax Syntax refers to the arrangement of words in a language. For example in English we put adjectives before nouns.Intelligence tests that yield a bell shaped curve are a graphic representation of: - the g factor. - factor analysis. - heritability estimate. - a normal distribution. - savant syndrome.- a normal distribution. A normal distribution is often referred to as a bell curve because it illustrates rare occurrences of traits on both ends with the majority of occurrences in the middle.People are more likely to buy a winter coat that is priced at $99.99 than a coat that is priced at $100.00. This is because of: - insight. - belief perseverance. - cognitive dissonance. - confirmation bias. - Framing.- Framing. Framing is the way an issues is posed. $99.99 sounds better than $100.00.The ability to generate multiple solutions to a problem illustrates: - framing skills. - neural plasticity. - predictive validity. - divergent thinking. - factor analysis.- divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is a thought process method that generates creative ideas through the exploration of many possible solutions.Intelligence heritability refers to: - the correlation between intelligence and creativity scores. - the effect of the environment on intelligence. - how much intelligence can be attributed to academics. - the ability to perceive novel ideas. - the among to intelligence that can be attributed to genetics.- the among to intelligence that can be attributed to genetics. Heritability describes the amount of group variation of a trait that can be attributed to genetics.The tendency to rely too much on first examples when making judgments and assessments is called: - divergent thinking. - creativity. - convergent thinking. - representative heuristics. - availability heuristics.- availability heuristics. Availability heuristic is a mental shortcut that leads to faulty thinking because we pull from recent examples in determining the likelihood of something to happen.Which of the following is an accurate description of g factor? - The internal consistency of an intelligence test. - The ability to understand and regulate emotions. - A highly developed skill or talent possessed by an otherwise retarded person. - A general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks. - The genetic contribution to intelligence.- A general intelligence that underlies successful performance on a wide variety of tasks. G factor or general intelligence describes the commonalities between cognitive test results.While reviewing her multiple choice exam Aria refrained from changing her answer choices on several items. She reminded herself the importance of sticking with her first answer, thus illustrating the use of: - a prototype. - insight. - trial and error. - a heuristic. - an algorithm.- a heuristic. Heuristics are approaches to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs practical methods.Stories in the news of terrorism attacks on airlines raise peoples estimates of how dangerous air travel really is. This is due to the effects of: - the representativeness heuristic. - priming. - functional fixedness. - framing. - the availability heuristic.- the availability heuristic. Availability heuristic is a mental shortcut that relies on readily available information to make judgment or decisions.One of the spokes on the wheel of Jason's bike has broken. In place of a new spoke he uses his pencil.This illustrates Jason's ability to overcome: - availability heuristics. - overconfidence. - functional fixedness. - representative heuristics. - belief perseverance.- functional fixedness. Functional fixedness is the inability to see novel uses for an item.Which of the following is an accurate description of a morpheme? - Genetic road maps that lead to insight. - The smallest distinctive sound units of a language. - The best examples of particular categories of objects. - The smallest speech units that carry meaning. - Rules for combining words into grammatically correct sentences.- The smallest speech units that carry meaning. A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in language.Which of the following demonstrates an example of representative heuristics? - Fearing riding on a train because recent news stories about train crashes. - Retracing your steps to retrieve your lost keys. - Avoiding a certain street because two of your friends just received speeding tickets traveling down that street. - Experiencing a moment that is eerily familiar. - Determining Jan must be a librarian because she likes quiet and reading books.- Determining Jan must be a librarian because she likes quiet and reading books. Representative heuristics are mental shortcuts in which we judge the likelihood of things in terms of how well they represent certain prototypes.Phonemes are: - a type of sign language. - the basis of grammar across all languages. - the basic units of sound in a language. - telegraphic speech. - a form of syntax.- the basic units of sound in a language. Phonemes are the smallest unit of distinctive sound in a language.During which stage of language development do children begin to demonstrate the knowledge of how to put words together? - babbling - three-word - two-word - phonetic - syntactic- two-word During the two-word stage children begin to develop more complete thoughts with multiple words.Which of the following is an example of a heuristic? - Following the directions to put together a piece of furniture. - Calculating the circumference of a room. - Recalling published reports of crime to estimate how much crime actually takes place in your local community. - Searching each room in your house to recover your lost smartphone. - Trying every key on your key ring to find the one that matches your grandma's house.- Recalling published reports of crime to estimate how much crime actually takes place in your local community. Heuristics are thinking strategies that allow us to make judgements to solve problems. While speedy they are often error prone.The ability to compare test performance to the scores of a representative pre-tested sample creates a test that is: - standardized. - reliable. - valid. - internally consistent. - normally distributed.- standardized. Standardized tests are administered and scored with a representative population. Scoring with the population is consistent with the representative sample.Intuition is useful in facilitating: - belief perseverance. - quick decisions. - functional fixedness. - confirmation bias - framing.- quick decisions. Intuition is the ability to understand something immediately.The basic sound of language is called: - phonemes. - morphemes. - grammar. - holophrases. - syntax.- phonemes. Phonemes are distinct units of sounds in a language.Categorizing new information based on how well it fits into previous prototypes is called: - availability heuristic. - the framing effect. - confirmation bias. - belief perseverance phenomenon. - representativeness heuristic.- representativeness heuristic. Representative heuristics is making the use of prototypes to judge or categorize new information.In Gestalt psychology sensory stimuli is perceived as a(n): - organized whole. - illusion. - binocular cue. - perceptual adaptation. - perceptual set.- organized whole. Gestalt psychology believes that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.Upon entering the circus Sally immediately smelled the popcorn, several minutes before her parents. Based on this information we can deduce that Sally has a lower __________ than her parents for the smell of popcorn. - accommodation level - olfactory saturation level - adaptation level - tolerance level - absolute threshold- absolute threshold Absolute threshold describes the lowest level of stimuli needed to be detected.Which of the following principles states that a biologically based characteristic that contributes to the survival of a species will be more likely to be pass in genes? - DNA - mutation - natural selection - heritability - genetic drift- natural selection Natural selection is the driving force of evolution. It states that traits that will increase a population will remain and those that decrease it will over time be eliminated.Which of the following brain scans would measure the concentration of glucose in active regions of the brain? - PET scan - fMRI - EEG - MRI - brain lesion- PET scan A PET scan measures how much chemical a brain is using.The serial position effect illustrates the importance of: - visual imagery - rehearsal - flashbulb memory - automatic processing - primacy effect- rehearsal Rehearsal refers to the repetition of an item in an effort to send it to LTM.Encoding by meaning is called - semantic encoding - automatic processing - mnemonic encoding - rehearsal - long-term potentiation- semantic encoding Semantic encoding is processing sensory information through its meaning.According to Erikson, the sense of basic trust in infancy is achieved if: - responsive parenting takes place. - accommodation takes place. - habituation occurs. - inborn temperament is good. - object permanence is achieved.- responsive parenting takes place. During infancy if the parent meets the needs and demands of the infant basic trust will develop.Acquisition of the concept of theory of mind by preschoolers illustrates that Piaget overestimated a child's: - sense of object permanence. - stranger anxiety. - habituation. - egocentrism. - accommodation.- egocentrism. Theory of mind is the ability to attribute one's mental state and thoughts to oneself and the realization or understanding that others have different beliefs.