37 terms

Biology 2 AP Midterm Review Part 3

This Contains EUKARYOTIC CELL STRUCTURE
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Cell
Smallest unit that lives on its own or has the potential to do so.
Plama Membrane
Thin, outermost membrane that maintains the cell. It allows certain substances to enter and leave the cell.
Nucleus
Membrane-bound sac in the cell that holds DNA
Nucleoid
Region in the interior of prokaryotic cells that contains DNA
Cytoplasm
Everything between the plasma membrane and region of DNA, containing semifluid matrix and other things such as ribosomes
Ribosomes
Structures on which proteins are built
Eukaryotic Cells
Types of cells taht have organelles in its cytoplasm
Organelles
Internal membrane bnound sac or compartment that serves one or more specialized functions inside eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic Cells
Types of cells that don't have a nucleus, where nothing is between the DNA and cytoplasm
Lipid Bilayer
continuous, oily boundary that prevents free passage of water-soluble substances in and out of cells.
Nuclear Envelope
Double membrane system that seectively controls the passage of various substances in and out of a nucleus
Nucleoplasm
Fluid inside the nucleus
Nucleolus
A construction site where certain RNAs and protein are combined to create ribosomal subunits
Chromosome
One DNA molecule and its associated proteins, regardless of whether it's in its threadlike or condensed form
Chromatin
Cell's collection of DNA, together with all proteins associated with it
Endomembrane System
Series of functionally connected organelles where lipids are made and new polypeptide chains are modified, includes the ER, Golgi Bodies, and vesicles
rough ER
ER that looks like stacks of flattened sacs with many ribosomes on it. It Modifies polypeptide chains to shape them into final protein form
Smooth ER
ER that doesn't have ribosomes and curves through cytoplasm like pipes. It assembles most lipids
Golgi Body
Organelle looking like a stack of pancakes, made up of flattened membrane bound sacs. It puts finishing touches on protein and lipids and sorts and ships them in vesicles to specific locations
Lysosomes
Vesicle of intercellular digestion that hold enzymes that digest complex carbs, protein, nucleic acids, and some lipids. They can digest entire cells and cell parts.
Vesicles
Tiny, membranous organelle sacs that move through the cytoplasm or take up positions in it. It buds from Golgi membranes
Peroxisomes
Type of vesicle that are sacs of enzymes that break down fatty acids and amino acids.
Mitochondria
Organelle that is the ATP-producing powerhouse of eukaryotic cells. It uses oxygen to produce way more ATP than any other reactions. It contains and inner and outer membrane. the outer stockpiles ions and then they flow inside to be processed.
Chloroplast
Organelles that use sunlight energy to drive the formation of ATP and DADPH. They are like mitochondria for plants.
Central Vacuole
Fluid filled organelle that stores amino acids, sugars, ions, and toxic wastes and helps the cell grow in plant cells. It expands during growth. Can take up 50-90% of a cell.
Cytoskeleton
Reinforces, organizes, and moves internal cell parts and often helps the cell move
Micotubules
Class of cytoskeletal elements that helps in directional movements that put cell structures and organelles in new locations.
Microfilaments
thinnest Class of cytoskeletal elements that form flexible linear bundles and networks that reinforce or restructure the cell surface
Intermediate filaments
Most stable elements of cytoskeletons. They help strengthen and maintain the shape of clels or cell parts and are only present in the cytoplasm of some animal cells.
Motor proteins
Proteins that move cell components in a sustained, directional fashion. They are called kinesins and dyneins around microtubules and are myosins around microfilaments
Flagella
Longer and less profuse type of way for cells to move.
Cilia
shorter but more numerous ways for cell movement in a non whiplike fashion
pseudopods
Irregular lobes that project from the body and are used for cell locomotion and prey capture.
Cell wall
structural component that wraps continously around the plasma membrane and protects and physically supports the owner. it is very porous so water/solutes may enter.
Primary wall
Thin and plable cell wall that permits the cell to continue to enlarge under the pressure of incoming water.
Secondary Wall
Cell wall that is rigid and reinforces cell shape
Cell communication
Ways in which one cell signals another to change its activities.