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49 terms

Chapter 1

STUDY
PLAY
Sumerians
creators of first Mesopotamian civilization; capital: Ur, temples, ziggurats, big walls
Akkadians
semitic people to the north of sumeria, conquered sumeria
Sargon
ruler of the Akkadians, formed and empire
hammurabi
ruler of the Amorites, unified Mesopotamia
divination
reading the gods wishes by sacrificing animals or reading the stars
epic of gilgamesh
epic poem about the king of uruk who wanted to become immortal
dynasty
time period where one family ruled over the years
menes
first royal egyptian dynasty, united upper and lower egypt
ma'at
spiritual precept that conveyed the ideas of truth and justice but especially right order and harmony
bureaucracy
had regular procedures and departments: police, justice, river transport, public works, agriculture, and treasury
vizier
"steward of the whole land" in charge of bureaucracy
nomarch
governor, greek term
middle kingdom
leaders thought of people when making decisions
social ladder of egypt
pharaoh, nobles and priests, merchants and artisans, farmers
sun cult
sun god- Re, importance of the sun
Osiris cult
resurrection and rebirth, first for wealthy people then to everyone else
book of the dead
held magical incantations that were used to ensure a favorable journey to a happy afterlife
ka
spiritual form of the body
art
assist dead to the afterworld, strict canon:proportions, form and presentation
Hyksos
semitic, originally in arabian peninsula, introduced bronze
New Kingdom
militaristic and imperialistic, most powerful
Amenhotep
introduced monotheism
Ramses
regained control of Palestine
Hatshepsut
woman queen, military expeditions, mining, agriculture, trading expeditions
marraige
parent arranged, produce kids, could divorce
neolithic europe
domesticated animals, farming on their own, large stone structures
Stonehenge
england, rings of stone structures, lined up with celestial objects
indo-europeans
black sea area, moved into europe
Hittites
threatened power of egypt, used iron
Phoenecians
semitic, extended trade, used water to traves, phonetical alphabet
hebrews
judaism, migrated to egypt because of a drought, enslaved in egypt
Judaism
influenced christianity and islam, flourished as a world religion
hebrew bible
old testament, hebrews as nomadic people, describes journey of hebrews
Saul
king of israel
David
King of israel
Solomon
king of Israel
temple
symbolic center of religion, arc of the covenant
israel
north of Judah, overtaken by Assyria
Judah
South of Israel, overtaken by Chaldeans
Yahweh
Jewish god
Assyrians
semitic, tigris river area, military
Ashurbanipal
strongest Assyrian ruler
Assyrian military
standing army at all times, well organized and disciplined
Chaldeans
semitic, led to collapse of assyrians
Persians
indo-european, nomadic, tribes and clans
Cyrus the Great
united persian clans, conquered surrounding areas
Darius
largest empire, created satrapies
Zoroastrianism
persian form of monotheism
Ahuramazda
main persian god