APUSH Chapter 28
Terms in this set (42)
A group of reformers who worked to solve problems caused by the rapid industrial urban growth of the late 1800s.
Henry Demarest Lloyd
One of the earliest muckrakers attacked practices of Standard Oil Company and railroads in his book "Lloyd's Wealth Against Commonwealth" which fully exposed corruption and greed of oil monopoly but failed to suggest how to control it.
American-Norwegian sociologist known for the book The Theory of the Leisure Class. Known for concepts on conspicuous consumption, ostentatious display, trained incapacity, predatory culture, absentee ownership, and discretionary control.
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.
Group that believed nation's resources and industries should be owned and operated by the government on behalf of the people
The Social Gospel
A movement regarding poverty using Christian principles (education, no child labor, proactive organizations)
A group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics; included Frank Norris (The Octopus) Ida Tarbell (A history of the standard oil company) Lincoln Steffens (the shame of the cities) and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle)
United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism, Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
made over $50 million on the Stock Market and wrote a series of articles in the magazine Everybody's from 1905-1906 titled "Frenzied Finance" that revealed how his accomplices practiced and worked the Stock Market.
Ray Stannard Baker
He wrote the book "Following the Color Line" which was a series spotlighting the plight of 9 million blacks—of whom 90 percent still lived in the South and one-third were illiterate.He believed that social justice required journalism of "righteous indignation."
the process of petitioning a legislature to introduce a bill. It was part of the Populist Party's platform in 1891, along with referendum and recall. These all intended to make the people more responsible for their laws and allow them to make political decisions rather than the legislature.
When citizens vote on laws instead of the state or national governments. It originated as a populous reform in the populist party, but was later picked up by the progressive reform movement.
The people could possibly remove an incompetent politician from office by having a second election.
A system that allows voters privacy in marking their ballot choices. Developed in Australia and it was introduced to the United States during the progressive era to help counteract boss rule
constitutional amendment allowing American voters to directly elect US senators
Robert La Follette
1the governor of Wisconsin and significant figure of the progressive era, took considerable control from the corrupt corporations and returned it to the people, attacked machine politics and pressured the state legislature to require each party to hold a direct primary
A progressive reformer of the early 1900s. He was elected the republican govenor of California in 1910, and helped to put an end to trusts. He put an end to the power that the Southern Pacific Railroad had over politics.
Charles Evans Hughes
A reformist Republican governor of New York, who had gained fame as an investigator of malpractices by gas and insurance companies and by the coal trust. He later ran against Wilson in the 1916 election.
Florence Kelly (National Consumer's League)
reformer who worked to prohibit child labor and to improve conditions for female workers
A lawyer and jurist, he created the "____ Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
a fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company in 1911 killed 146 people, mostly women. They died because the doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Dramatized the poor working conditions and let to federal regulations to protect workers.
Frances Willard & WCTU
Dean of Women at Northwestern University and the president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union which she build to become the largest organization of women in the world.
A plan by TR to keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of the poor. Was formed on three basic ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. It aimed at helping middle class citizens and attacking the super rich and trusts while at the same time protecting business from the extreme demands of organized labor.
Anthracite Coal Strike
Workers went on a strike and demanded a raise and less work hours, but owners disagreed and endangered America to go through a cold freezing winter. Roosevelt who had no authority in the matter, still summoned representatives of both sides to a White House meeting. The president proposed arbitration; the miners accepted the proposal, but the owners declined. Then Roosevelt angrily threatened to send in federal soldiers to take over the mines causing the owners to reluctantly agree
Gave the ICC more power to control railroads and tried to stop rail companies from giving preferential treatment to certain customers
Law that used the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the maximum charge that railroads to place on shipping goods.
Firms or corporations that combine together for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.
Northern Securities Case
A holding company in 1902. The company was forced to dissolve after they were challenged by Roosevelt, his first trust-bust.
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things he had seen.
Meat Inspection Act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.
One of the country's first scientific foresters, appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt as the chief of the newly created Division of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture; worked to develop programs and public interest in conservation, but was fired by President William Howard Taft after exposing a supposed scandal involving western conservation land
Congressional response to Theodore Roosevelt in 1902. Washington was to collect money from sales of public lands in western states and use funds for development of irrigation projects
A Scottish-born American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States. His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, have been read by millions.
Panic of 1907
a serious recession, proved the gov. still had little control over the industrial economy. Conservatives blamed Roosevelt's mad economic policies for the disaster, and the president disagreed, but acted quickly to reassure business leaders that he wouldn't interfere with their private recovery efforts.
William Howard Taft
(1857-1930) Twenty-seventh president of the United States; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff. He lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
Eugene V. Debs (election of 1908)
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. Was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs. This split the Republican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff).
Progressives vs. the Old Guard
TR vs. Taft in the nominations 1912, La Follette was the leading candidate for the National Progressive Republican League until TR wrote to states saying he was willing to accept the nomination, Taft won but now TR wanted a third election