Social Psychology
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Terms in this set (37)
Social loafingthe tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal when individually accountable.Group Polarizationthe enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.Groupthinkthe mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-‐making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.Prejudicean unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.Stereotypea generalized (sometimes accurate but often over generalized) belief about a group of people.Discriminationunjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members.Ingroup"us" - people with whom one shares a common identity.Outgroup"them" - those perceived as different or apart from one's ingroup.Ingroup Biasthe tendency to favor one's own ingroup.Scapegoat Theorythe theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.Just-‐world phenomenonthe tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.Aggressionany physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.Frustrationaggression principle - the principle that frustration - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal - creates anger, which can generate aggression.Conflicta perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.Social Trapa situation in which the conflicting particles, by each rationally pursuing their self-‐interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.More-‐exposure effectthe phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.Passionate lovean aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually, present at the beginning of a love relationship.Companionate lovethe deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.Equitya condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.Self-‐disclosurerevealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.Altruismunselfish regard for the welfare of others.Bystander effectthe tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.Social Exchange Theorythe theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.Reciprocity norman exception that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.Social responsibility norman expectation that people will help those who dependent upon them.Superordinate Goal sshared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.GRITGraduated and reciprocated initiatives in Tension-Reduction - a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.