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28 terms

APES CH. 2 Key Terms

STUDY
PLAY
culture
a community's ensemble of knowledge, beliefs, values, and learned ways of life. It can also include personal experiences
worldview
a person's perception of the world
ethics
a branch of philosophy that involves the study of good and bad, of right or wrong
relativists
ethicists that believe that ethics do and should vary with social context
universalists
ethicists who maintain that there exists objective notions of right and wrong that hold across cultures and situations
ethical standards
criteria that help differentiate right from wrong
environmental ethics
application of ethical standards to relationships between humans and nonhuman entities
anthropocentrism
description of a human-centered view of our relationship with the environment
biocentrism
contrast with anthropocentrism, ascribes value to certain living things or to the biotic realm in general
ecocentrism
judges actions in terms of their benefit or harm to the integrity of whole ecological systems, which consist of living and nonliving elements and the relationships among them
preservation
holds that we should protect the natural environment in a pristine, unaltered state
conservation
holds that people should put natural resources to use but also that we have a responsibility to manage them wisely
deep ecology
established in the 1970s by Leopold, describes the movement as resting on principles of "self-realization" as the awareness that humans are inseparable from nature
ecofeminism
argues that patriarchal structure of society is a root cause of both social and environmental problems
environmental justice
involves that fair and equitable treatment of all people with respect to environmental policy and practice, regardless of their income, race, or ethnicity
economics
study of how people decide to use scarce resources to provide goods and services in the face of demand for them
economy
a social system that converts resources into goods
goods
material commodities manufactured for and bought by individuals and businesses
services
work done for others as a form of business
subsistence economy
oldest type of economy; people in this subsistence economies meet most or all of their daily needs directly from nature and do not purchase or trade for most of life's necessities
capitalist market economy
in this system, the interactions among buyers and sellers determine which goods and services are produced, how much are produced, and how these are produced and distributed
centrally planned economics
government determines in a top down manner how to allocate resources
mixed economies
all capitalist market economies that have borrowed money from state socialism and are in fact hybrid systems
classical economics
when people are free to pursue their own economic self-interest in a competitive marketplace
neoclassical
examines the psychological factors underlying consumer choices, explaining market prices in terms of consumer preferences for units of particular commodities
cost-benefit
estimated costs for a proposed action are totaled up and compared to the sum of benefits estimated to result from the action
externalities
costs or benefits of a transaction that involve people other than the buyer or seller
external cost
a cost borne by someone not involved in a transaction