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a community's ensemble of knowledge, beliefs, values, and learned ways of life. It can also include personal experiences


a person's perception of the world


a branch of philosophy that involves the study of good and bad, of right or wrong


ethicists that believe that ethics do and should vary with social context


ethicists who maintain that there exists objective notions of right and wrong that hold across cultures and situations

ethical standards

criteria that help differentiate right from wrong

environmental ethics

application of ethical standards to relationships between humans and nonhuman entities


description of a human-centered view of our relationship with the environment


contrast with anthropocentrism, ascribes value to certain living things or to the biotic realm in general


judges actions in terms of their benefit or harm to the integrity of whole ecological systems, which consist of living and nonliving elements and the relationships among them


holds that we should protect the natural environment in a pristine, unaltered state


holds that people should put natural resources to use but also that we have a responsibility to manage them wisely

deep ecology

established in the 1970s by Leopold, describes the movement as resting on principles of "self-realization" as the awareness that humans are inseparable from nature


argues that patriarchal structure of society is a root cause of both social and environmental problems

environmental justice

involves that fair and equitable treatment of all people with respect to environmental policy and practice, regardless of their income, race, or ethnicity


study of how people decide to use scarce resources to provide goods and services in the face of demand for them


a social system that converts resources into goods


material commodities manufactured for and bought by individuals and businesses


work done for others as a form of business

subsistence economy

oldest type of economy; people in this subsistence economies meet most or all of their daily needs directly from nature and do not purchase or trade for most of life's necessities

capitalist market economy

in this system, the interactions among buyers and sellers determine which goods and services are produced, how much are produced, and how these are produced and distributed

centrally planned economics

government determines in a top down manner how to allocate resources

mixed economies

all capitalist market economies that have borrowed money from state socialism and are in fact hybrid systems

classical economics

when people are free to pursue their own economic self-interest in a competitive marketplace


examines the psychological factors underlying consumer choices, explaining market prices in terms of consumer preferences for units of particular commodities


estimated costs for a proposed action are totaled up and compared to the sum of benefits estimated to result from the action


costs or benefits of a transaction that involve people other than the buyer or seller

external cost

a cost borne by someone not involved in a transaction

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