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a community's ensemble of knowledge, beliefs, values, and learned ways of life. It can also include personal experiences
ethicists who maintain that there exists objective notions of right and wrong that hold across cultures and situations
application of ethical standards to relationships between humans and nonhuman entities
contrast with anthropocentrism, ascribes value to certain living things or to the biotic realm in general
judges actions in terms of their benefit or harm to the integrity of whole ecological systems, which consist of living and nonliving elements and the relationships among them
holds that people should put natural resources to use but also that we have a responsibility to manage them wisely
established in the 1970s by Leopold, describes the movement as resting on principles of "self-realization" as the awareness that humans are inseparable from nature
argues that patriarchal structure of society is a root cause of both social and environmental problems
involves that fair and equitable treatment of all people with respect to environmental policy and practice, regardless of their income, race, or ethnicity
study of how people decide to use scarce resources to provide goods and services in the face of demand for them
oldest type of economy; people in this subsistence economies meet most or all of their daily needs directly from nature and do not purchase or trade for most of life's necessities
capitalist market economy
in this system, the interactions among buyers and sellers determine which goods and services are produced, how much are produced, and how these are produced and distributed
all capitalist market economies that have borrowed money from state socialism and are in fact hybrid systems
when people are free to pursue their own economic self-interest in a competitive marketplace
examines the psychological factors underlying consumer choices, explaining market prices in terms of consumer preferences for units of particular commodities
estimated costs for a proposed action are totaled up and compared to the sum of benefits estimated to result from the action
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