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Med Microbio Exam 3 Part 2 (UTI/STI)
Terms in this set (92)
What are some functions of a healthy liver?
Filters LPS dead RBCs and WBC debri, specialized immune kupffer cells, secretes digestive enzymes
_____ is inflammation of the liver caused by a diverse group of microbes
What are symptoms of hepatitis?
Abd pain, jaundice, dark urine
What causes jaundice?
Bilirubin which is a biproduct of heme degredation, will not be removed if liver function is decreased
What is the most common form of hepatitis and what virus is it caused by?
Hepatitis A, pricornaviridae icosohedral RNA virus
How is Hep A transmitted?
Contaminated food (shellfish) anal sex, fecal oral. Resistant to chemical and physical agents
What is the incubation period of hep A and where does it take action?
2-4 weeks, localized liver inflammation
What are symptoms of Hep A?
Fatigue, loss of appetite (trouble digesting), nausea vomiting, abd pain, jaundice
How long does it take to recover from hep a and what is the treatment?
2 weeks or longer, antibodies, hepA vaxx. Lifelong immunity for recovered
What is Hep B, the more serious form of hepatitis than Hep A, caused by?
Enveloped DNA virus heparnaviridae, has antigenic surface protein HBsAg
How is Hep B transmitted?
Contact with body fluids, blood, semen
How long does hep B incubate?
What are symptoms of Hep B infection?
Abd pain, cirrhosis of liver, liver carcinoma, liver failure, death, hepatomegaly
In hep B infections 30% are _____ and 15-25% _____
Asymptomatic, die of severe liver dz
How is hep B treated?
Antibody and interferon therapy, some may have lifelong immunity. Lifelong carriers also poss
What is the primary cause of liver transplants that is acquired through blood transfer?
What is hep B combined with hep D (hitchiker) that results in chronic liver damage?
What form of hep is derived from fecal contaminated water in undeveloped countries, pregnant women are most susceptible?
What form of hep results in chronic liver disease and is most often present in blood products?
Schistosomiasis is transmitted when a person is exposed to water containing larvae or when worms penetrate skin through foot and ankles and is caused by
Shistosoma haematobium, S japonicum, and S mansoni
Reproduction of schistosoma occurs in the liver where what happens?
Massive amounts of antigenic eggs are released into the blood and many get stuck in bladder, some passed in feces
What are the symptoms that appear a few weeks after infection with schistosoma?
Fever, cough, abd pain, diarrhea, bladder infection or disease, enlarged liver and spleen, granulamatous lesions, colon polyps
What is the treatment for schistosoma?
meds for 1-2 days
What are ways that the body fights against UTIs?
pH (acidic) of urine, composition and flushing of urine
What are some anatomical abnormalities that prevent normal emptying of the bladder and can cause UTI?
Pregnancy, genetics or disease (tumor/kidney stones), enlarged prostate
Why do women get UTIs more frequently than men?
Their urethra is shorter and also closer to the anus
What is something that happens at the hospital that increases risk for UTI?
Most UTIs are due to _____ specifically E coli serotypes O, K
What species can produce urease and thus cause kidney stones?
A ____ is the most common infection in the hospital
___ is a bladder infection while _____ is a kidney infection caused by bacteria
What are symptoms of uncomplicated UTI aka self limiting urethritis/cystitis?
dysuria, polyuria, lower back/abd pain, cloudy urine (pyuria)
What are complications of complicated UTI aka prostatitis and pyelonephritis?
UTI symptoms + high fever, pain in flanks, severe cases can cause septic shock
Does pyelonephritis cause kidney function damage?
What are the treatements for uncomplicated UTI?
Abx 3 days, symptoms can last up to 4 weeks but will resolves, large amts of fluid intake
What are the treatments for complicated UTI?
10 days abx, long term abx use
In _____ the repro and urinary systems are separate in ____ they are combined
What are some innate immunity defenses for the repro tract?
Integrity of mucosal surface, urine flow, phagocytes, inflammation, antibodies
STIs are often present in bodily fluids and transmitted how?
Vaginal, oral, anal intercourse
What are symptoms that suggest an STI?
Abnormal d/c, pain or burning urinating, sores/blisters, itching, pain, skin rash or mouth lesions
Syphilis is caused by ______ which is a motile spirochete that can bore through tissue and is good at hiding from the immune system
Where is syphilis cultivated?
Rabbit testes, obligate human pathogen
What is a risk for pregnant women with syphilis?
Can be passed to fetus
Syphilis required a low inoculum (100 cells) and moves through the body how?
Lymphatic system to LN and then thru blood stream, invades CNS
What happens in the primary stage (2-10 weeks) of syphilis?
Chancre (painless ulcer) at site of infection, heals by itself
What happens during the secondary stage (2-6 weeks after primary) of syphilis?
Flu like symptoms, mucotaneous rash on palms and feet
What happens during the tertiary stage of syphilis (3-30 years later)?
Gumma soft lesions throughout the body, blindness, strokes, insanity (neurosyphilis)
What happens with congenital syphilis?
Stillbirth, neonatal death, infant disorders resulting in severe and disabling complications, infants often develop secondary syphilis and die
What are symptoms infants with syphilis get?
Failure to gain wt, saddle nose, rashes, pneumonia
What are symptoms of young children with syphilis?
Peg teeth, joint bone pain, blindness, hudginsons triad, deafness, neuro disorders
What are treatments for congenital syphilis?
Infection can be cured so they arent a carrier but developmental damage cannot be fixed
Gonorrhea is caused by _____ a gram - diplococcus nonmotile that has many virulence factors
Gonorrhea incubates for 2-6 days and then
Colonizes urogenital tract, causes urethritis
What are symptoms for men with gonorrhea?
Painful urination, thick white discharge, inflammation
What are symptoms for women with gonorrhea?
Often asymptomatic (50%), 10-20% of cases are hitchhikers that results in pelvic inflammatory disease
What can untreated gonorrhea lead to in men and women?
What can happen to newborns if passing through birth canal infected with gonorrhea?
Opthalmia neonatorum, may lead to blindness
What are tx options for gonorrhea?
Antibiotics, may strains resistant. Multi drug therapy often needed. No vaxx or immunity
What is pelvic inflammatory disease and what are complications?
Infection of uterus, fallopian tubes and other repro organs. Infertility, ectopic pregnancy, abscess, fibrosis formation, chronic pelvic pain
Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes ___ cause STIs
What is prominent about the chlamydia bacteria?
It likes to be intracellular aka get into cells
After the 1-2 week incubation period, what symptoms does chlamydia cause?
Mimics gonorrhea, infects urethra, women may get abd pain and bleeding from swollen cervix or batholin gland cysts
What are complications that occur in those with asymptomatic chlamydia (75% women 50% men)?
Hitchhiking, PID, fallopian tube scarring, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, newborn chlamydial opthalmia or pneumonia
Neiserria gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis (D-K) cause what in newborns 5-12 days after birth?
Inclusion conjunctivitis/opthalmia neonaturum. Tearing, itchiness, thick purulent discharge, scarring vision impairment or blindness
What is the tx for opthalmia neonaturum?
Infants are given prophylatic abx eyedrops at birth
What does chlamydia trachomatis L1, L2, L3 cause (commonly in Africa, Asia, SA)
What happens after the incubation period of 1-4 weeks in lymphogranuloma venereum when it spreads through lymphatic system
Ulcerating papules proceeding to form buboes, large swelling/elephantitis, proctitis, anal fistulas
How is LGV treated?
What pathogen causes after 3-10 days a soft chancre ulcers that are painful/chancroid dz?
How is chancroid treated?
Antibiotics, only 100 cases/yr in US more common in developing countries
What STI is possibly the most common but is underdiagnosed because it is caused by bacteria with no cell wall so they are difficult to identify?
Non-gonococcal urethritis (Mycoplasma hominis and genitalium, Ureoaplasma urealyticum)
How many people are expected to be asymptomatic carriers of nongonoccal urethritis?
What are complications of nongonoccoal urethritis?
Increased burning urinating, can infect placenta or fetus, can cause sterility, pregnancy complications inconclusive
What pathogen causes and overgrowth of normal yeast?
Antifungals are effective for tx candidiasis, what are the symptoms?
Burning and itching, swollen tissues, white cheesy discharge
What STI is believed to be polymicrobial aka multiple bacteria are overgrown?
What is the main bacteria in BV?
Gardnerella vaginalis plus other anaerobes
What are symptoms of BV and how is it diagnosed?
Vaginitis, foul fish smelling d/c, large amounts milky/creamy. Clue cells under microscope dx
What STI is caused by a protozoan and infects the vagina of females and urethra and prostate of males (males usually asymptomatic)
What STI causes foul smelling, frothy, sometimes greenish discharge, many times just before or after menstruation, and sometimes PID?
How is trichomonas dx and tx?
ID of motile trophozoites in vaginal d/c, meds effective
What STI is caused by an icosohedral DNA virus with spikes?
Genital herpes (HSV 1 and 2)
Herpes remains in nerve cells until triggered by what sort of agents?
stress, sunburn, menstruation, fever, trauma
HSV 2 most commonly causes genital herpes and results in what symptoms?
Recurrent genital sores, ulcerating vesicles of external and internal tissue
What is the tx for herpes?
No cure, antivirals and supressive meds can supress outbreaks
Infection in uteros with herpes is rare but can result in what?
Herpes triad: skin vesicles, eye damage, CNS invasion and impairment, intrauterine death
What can result if infants are infected during birth with herpes?
What groups of viruses are dsDNA and 40 types are sexually transmitted?
Papillomaviruses, STI are 6, 11, 16, 18
What is the incubation of HPV?
What are the general risks with STIs?
Increased risk of HIV infection, sterility, newborn complications or death, systemic neurological damage
What infections cause most harm to fetus?
TORCHS- Toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalo, HIV, herpes, syphilis
How do you avoid STI infection in infants?
Good prenatal care, getting mom tx before birth or planned c section
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