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AP Euro Reformation
List of vocab for Reformation
Terms in this set (50)
the selling of Church offices
The holding of several benefices, or church offices.
favoritism shown to relatives or close friends by those in power (as by giving them jobs)
an official not participation in benefices but receiving payment and privileges. On of the corruptions in the Catholic Church
sale of indulgences
This was the way that many people were granted salvation. This was a common method of the church to gain power and money
Erasmus, "In Praise of Folly"
Christian humanist of the Northern Renaissance, he criticized the corruption in the church and the hypocrisy of the clergy. It was even said that he "laid the egg that Luther hatched."
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
This Dominican monk was chosen to advertise indulgences in 1517, and did so using extreme methods so that many people bought them. This caught Luther's attention, and was a factor that led to the 95 Theses.
written by Martin Luther in 1517, they are widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. Luther used these theses to display his displeasure with some of the Church's clergy's abuses, most notably the sale of indulgences; this ultimately gave birth to Protestantism.
"priesthood of all believers"
as long as one believes in god then he doesnt need the church to have a personal relationship with god
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Confessions of Augsburg
an attempted compromise of religous faith between Lutheran and Catholic princes of the HRE. The statement was rejected by the Catholic princes, but became traditional statement of the Lutheran Church. The statement included the ideas of salvation through faith alone, the bible as the sole authority and priesthood of all believers.
greatest scholar* among the school organizers of the german reformatioin. developed a public ed. plan, The Book of Visitiation. great educator of the lutherans. martin luther's colleague and friend. doctorate at age 21. greek professor.
Holy Roman Emperor. King of Spain.
This was the revolt that occurred in Germany where the peasants rebelled alongside the new Protestant thought. They were viciously quashed and the public appeal to the Reformation went substantially down
League of Schmalkalden
in Northern Germany formed by newly Protestant (Lutheran) princes to defend themselves against Charles V's drive to re-Catholicize Germany
Peace of Augsburg, 1555
Document in which Charles V recognized Lutheranism as a legal religion in the Holy Roman Empire. The faith of the prince determined the religion of his subjects.
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
a member of a religious group that emphasizes reason and faith in an individual; deny the idea of the Holy Trinity
Ulrich Zwingli, Zurich
Bible was sole authority, but in contrast to Luther, he saw the Eucharist as only symbolic, and that Luther's view of Real Presence was too Catholic in its foundation
Colloquy at Marburg
Zwingli officially split with Luther over issue of Eucharist
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
"Institutes of the Christian Religion"
Written by John Calvin, it contained four books which codified Protestant theology. Among these beliefs were the ultimate authority of the word of God, the depravity of man, and his belief that the Bible is the only source of Revelation.
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
Scottish theologian and Calvinist who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
the doctrines and practices of the Presbyterian Church: based in Calvinism
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
as taking communion, wine becomes blood, wafer becomes body (catholic)
a group of Anglicans in England who wanted to purify their church of Catholic ways
result of the disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, created the Church of England or Anglican Church which was separate from the Catholic Church, still left little room for religious freedom
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage
"In Defense of the Seven Sacraments"
A book written by Henry VIII to gain the pope's approval. Was given the title "Defender of the Faith" because of it.
Catherine of Aragon
Henry VIII's first wife. Bloody Mary's mother.
Henry VIII's second wife. Elizabeth I's mother
Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
replaced Wolsey and convinced Henry in 1533 that he could divorce Catherine by breaking away from Rome
Church of England
Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope, Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Mary Tudor "Bloody Mary"
Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Queen of Scotland.
Queen of England, she established the Anglican Church after her sister had tried to rid England of all Protestants
A ruler who suppresses his or her religious designs for his or her kingdom in favor of political expediency. Examples: Elizabeth I (England), Henry IV (France).
written in 1563, this defined the rules of the Anglican Church. The document followed Protestant doctrine but still accomodated for other English, except the Puritans.
A Scottish Catholic queen who fled Scotland during its reformation and later attempted to organize the assassination of Elizabeth I; she was beheaded.
Catholic (Counter) Reformation
Reformation Catholic Church mounted a series of reforms and reasserted its authority.
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
"Index of Prohibited Books"
List of books that were banned. Consisted of books that spoke against the Catholic Church.
Jesuits (Society of Jesus)
These people vowed absolute obedience to the pope. They used education to spread their message. Were sucessful in restoring Catholicism to parts of Germany and Eastern Europe and spreading it to other parts of the world.
Founded the Jesuits.
Spanish and English Inquisition
Catholics would torture and kill anyone not of the Catholic faith.
Justification by faith
Martin Luther's concept that faith alone is enough to bring salvation
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