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Stats Study Test 1
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Terms in this set (77)
Sum of Squares
The sum of X amount of number minus the mean squared
Σ(X−M)²
Variance ₆²
The sum of Squares Divided by n
SS/n
Standard Deviation
The square root of the Variance
√₆²
Sample Variance
Sum of Squares divided n minus one
Mean
The sum of the scores divided by numbers in set
Mean =20 N=5
20/5
Population
the term used to indentifiy the entire group of individuals that a researcher would like to study
samples
smaller group then the population
Descriptive Statics Example:
organizing a set of scores in a graph. Mean, median, mode. Anything used to organize or describe the data
Inferential Statics
Statistical techniques that use the limited information from samples to makes general conclusions about populations
Correlational Study
a study that measures two different variables for each individual
Experimental Study Characteristics:
it's goal is to demonstrate a cause and effect relationship
it requires other variables to be controlled
it requires the manipulation of
ONE
variable
The independent Variable
In an experimental study,it is the variable that differentiates the groups being compared
Attractiveness Rating
is the dependent variable
A researcher records the average temperature and the number of serious crimes each day for the month of June and finds a tendency for crime to increase as the temperature increase. What kind of research design is used for this study?
Correlational study
A recent study had one group study printed text on paper and the other group study the same text on a computer screen both groups were given a test on the material to compare the effectiveness of the two study techniques What is the dependent variable for this study?
The scores on the test
Elliot and nelly seperated a group of men into two equal groups and asked each man to judge the attractiviness of a woan shown in a photograph. The reasearchers manipulated the background of the photograph so that one group saw the picture on a white background and for the other group the background was red.The woman was rated significantly more attractive on the the red background. which kind of research design was used for this study?
Experimental design
Which of the following is an example of a continuous variable?
Age
Number of brothers & sisters
Phone number
gender
What kind of variable consists of infinitely divisible categories?
Continuous
Recording the gender of newborns in a county hospital is an example of using which scale of measurement ?
Interval
ordinal
Ratio
Nominal
Sorting watermelons into small medium and large sizes is an example of using which scale of measurement?
Ordinal ( has a recognized order to them)
If a researcher is able to say that one score is twice as large as the other Then what scale of measurement is being used?
Ratio (pieces of a pie)
Which symbol is used to identify a single score?
X
What is the value of ∑X for the following scores 3,2,5
10
(Simply add the numbers together)
What is the 1st step to be preformed when computing
∑*(X+1)*2
Add one to each score
A distribution of N=3 scores consists of 5,7and 50 what is the best way to represent these data?
Simply list the 3 scores (Because 50 is the bill gates of the set of numbers ) he is an outlier
What determines the width of the bars of a histogram?
The real limits of a score or class interval
What kind of graph is appropriate for scores on a nominal scale?
A bar graph
The normal distribution is an example of ?
a smooth curve showing data from a population
Where are the scores with the highest frequencies located in a distribution with a positive skew?
on the left side of the distribution
A skewed distribution typically has..
And a normal distribution has...
1 tail
2 tails
What shape would you except for the distribution of scores from a very easy exam for a very large class of students?
a negative skewed distribution
A sample of n=40 scores has a mean of M=75. If onr new score with a value of X=90 is added to the sample, what would happen to the sample mean ?
The mean would increase
What is the following median for the following set of sources?
1,3,9,10,22
1,3
,9
,10,22
A distribution can have more then one?
Mode
For any distribution, you can be sure that at least one individual has a score equal to the ..
Mode
The most commonly used measure of central tendency is...
the mean
A professor records the academic major for each student in a class of n=40 What would be the best measure of central tendency for these data?
the mode
One item on a questionnaire asks students how many times in a typical week they eat at a fast-food restaurant. These response choices are:
(1) Never (2) once (3) twice (4) Three or more times
What is the measure of central tendency for the data from this question?
The median
For a perfectly symmetrical distribution with μ=30, What is the value for the median ?
equal to 30
A negatively skewed distribution of exam scores, Tom scored at the mean, Mary scored at the median and Dace scored at the mode. Who had the highest score?
Dace
What is the best measure of central tendency for an extremely skewed distribution of scores?
the median
What is the value of the mean for the following set of scores?
1,3,5,0,1
2
10/5=2
For a distribution of scores, the mean is equal to the median. The distribution is most likely to be...
Symmetrical
What is true for a symmetrical distribution?
The mean is equal to the median
A sample has mean of M=25 If a new score with a value of X=25 is added to the sample. What effect will it have on the the sample mean?
The mean will remain the same
( because the seesaw balances it out)
What is the median for the following set of scores?
1,4,6,17
5
A population of scores has ∑X=60 and a mean of μ=12 how many scores are in this population
5
A sample of n=25 scores has a mean of M=12 if one score with the value of X=12 removed from the sample what will happen to the sample mean?
the mean will remain the same
For a negatively skewed distribution with a mode of X=25 and a mean of M=20 the mean is probably
Between 20-25
Which of the following is a property of the mean?
Multiplying each scoreby a constant will multiply the mean by the same constant
Changing the value of a score will change the value of the mean
Adding a constant to each score will add the same constant to the mean
Last summer, my June, July and August phone bills were $20, $30 and & $100 respectively What was my average monthly bill for the summer
add all the numbers up and divide by 3
50
What is the mean of the following set of scores?
1,6,10,11
add up all the numbers and divide by the number of scores ib the set.
7
A sample of scores of n=5 has a M=9 What is the ∑X for this sample?
5(9)=45 (undo the mean and multiply)
In a population of n=6 5 of the individuals all have scores that are exactly 1 point above the mean from this information you can determine the score for the 6th individual must be...
5 points below the mean
One sample of n=4 scores has a mean of M=20 if the two samples are combined then what value will be obtained for the mean of the combined sample?
Equal to 15
(you would just add the averages (the ms) together and then divide by 2)
(10+20=30/2)
A sample of n=25 scores has a mean of M=11 if each score in the sample is multiplied by 6 then what is the mean for the new sample?
66
six times 11
After 5 points are added to every score in a distribution, the mean is calculated and found to be µ=30 what was the value of the original mean for the distribution?
25
30-5
What action will always change the value of the mean?
Changing the value of one score
A sample has a M=30 if one score with a value of X=10 is removed from the sample. what effect will it have on the mean?
The sample mean will increase
For the following scores what is the frequency corresponding to X=3
1,4,3,2,31,1,5,3
1,4,
3
,2,31,1,5,3
which of the following is a method for obtaining n for the scores in a frequency distribution table?
add the values in the f column
A sample of n=20 sorces range from X=10 to a low of X=3
If these scores are placed in a freqenucy distribution table how many rows will the table have
start from the lowest number and count to the highest
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
(
8
columns)
In a group frequency distribution one interval is listed
50-54. What are the real limits of this interval ?
49.5 and 54.5
A distribution of scores being organized a grouped frequency distribution table with an interval width of 2 points. if the lowest score in the distribution is X=41 then the bottom interval in the table should be..
40-41
in a grouped frequency distribution one interval is listed 50-54. What is the width of this interval
5 points
A set of sorces ranges from a high of X=67 at a low of 23. If these scores are organized in a grouped frequency table with an interval width of 5 point then roughly how many intervals will be needed
eight to nine
parameter
is a value usually a numerical value that describes a population it is usually derived from the measurements of the individuals in the population
Statistic
is a value usually a numerical value that describes a sample and is usually derived from the measurements of individuals in that sample
A sample
is a set of individuals selected from a population usually intended to represent the population in a research study.
Quasi - independent variable
the independent variable that is used to create the different group of scores
discrete variable
consist of separate indivisible categories no values can exist between to neighboring categories
continuous variable
there are an infinite number of possible values that fall between any two observed values. a continuous variable is divisible into an infinite number of fractional parts
real limits
are the boundaries of intervals for scores that are represented on a continuous number line each number has to real limits
Upper real limit
top of the real interval
Lower real limit
at the bottom
interval scale
consist of ordered categories that are all intervals of the same size equal differences between numbers on the scale that reflect equal differences in magnitude however the zero point on an interval scale is arbitrary and does not indicate a zero amount of the variable being measured
A ratio Scale
is an interval scale with the additional feature of an absolute zero with a ratio scale ratios of numbers do not reflect ratios of magnitude
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