first 3 chapters

The systematic study of human society
Sociological Perspective
The special point of view of sociology that sees general patterns of society in the lies of particular people
Global Perspective
The study of the larger world and out society place in it
High income countries
Nations with the highest overall standards of living
Middle income countries
Nations with a standard of living about average for the world
low income countries
Nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor.
a way of understanding based on science
A statement of how and why specific facts are related.
support of social equality for women and men, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism
a simplified description applied to every person in some category.
Latent functions
the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
race conflict approach
a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories
symbolic interaction approach
a framework for building theory that see's society as the product of the everyday interaction of the individuals.
a logical system basis knowledge on direct, systematic observation
Empirical Evidence
Information we can verify with our senses
Positivist sociology
the study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior.
a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case
actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure.
independent variable
the variable that causes the change
dependent variable
the variable that changes
a relationship in which two (or more) variables change together
spurious correlation
an apparent but false relationship between (or more) variables that is caused by some variable.
repetition of research by other investigators
Interpretive sociology
the study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world.
critical sociology
the study of society that focuses on the need for social change
the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to beings female or male
a statement of a possible relationship between two (or more) variables.
Participant observation
a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities.
Hawthorne effect
a change in a subjects behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied
anything that carries a particular meaning reorganized by people who share the same culture.
a system of symbols that allow people to communicate with one another
cultural transmission
the process by which one generation passes culture to the next
culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good and beautiful, and that serve as broad guidelines for social living
specific thoughts or ideas that people hold to be true.
social culture
attempts by society to regulate peoples thoughts and behavior.
knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings
high culture
cultural patterns that distinguish a society elite.
popular culture
cultural patterns that are wide spread among a society's population
a perspective recognizing the culture diversity of the united states and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions
the dominance of European (especially English) cultural patterns
Emphasizing and promoting African cultural patterns
counter culture
cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society.
The practice of judging another culture by the standards of ones own culture.
cultural relativism
The practice of judging a culture by its own standards
the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects the together for a peoples way of life
non material culture
the ideas created by members of a society
material culture
the physical things created by members of a society
culture shock
personal disorientation when experiencing and unfamiliar way of life
social functions
The consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole.
culture integration
the close relationships among various elements of a cultural system