Exam #3 - EP

What is Cohen's d?
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According to Dinsdale, Reddon, & Hurd (2011), were there sex differences in total aggression? What about sex differences in anger? What did we conclude about Dinsdale, Reddon, and Hurd's findings about anger—did we think that they contradicted the findings of Aaron Sell and colleagues that we examined at the end of the Emotion module?
Consider Daly and Wilson's study of collaborative homicide in 13th century England. What is the major conclusion?genetic relatives are more likely to cooperate together (be "co-offenders") in collaborative killings than to aggress against one another (be "victim-offenders") in the same collaborative killing, as compared to non-relatives--consistent with predictions from inclusive fitness theory.When looking at Daly & Wilson's data on homicides among cohabitants and in collaborative killings, we suggested that there was bias in the data. What was the bias, and what happens when we adjust for it?What is the key takeaway from Daly and Wilson's (1988) cross-cultural analysis of collaborative killings?Cross-culturally, what is the association of perpetrator age with homicide, and how is this association related to perpetrator sex? From an evolutionary perspective, how is this association, and the sex difference tied to it, explained?Evolutionary theory suggests that the ultimate explanation lies in sexual selection and parental investment theory. Because women are the higher-investing sex, men compete more intensely for access to this investment. Male-male intrasexual competition for mates selects for a psychology that pursues status, resources, and other correlates tied to success in the mating arena. Intense male competition for status, resources, and mating success promotes risk-taking and aggression—emerging in adolescence when reproductive effort begins in earnest, peaking in the early twenties when competition is at its height, and declining with age as reproductive effort yields to parenting effort and physical decay.What evidence is understood to support this evolutionary account? What motivation is consistently found, across cultures, to be the most common motivation driving homicides?Trivial altercations and insults (this happens almost exclusively among males, and the implication is that male honor, status, and reputation are really what is at stake)Consider the visualizations of homicide in relation to age provided by Allen, Safari, and Buckner (2020). What were several conclusions—trends in the data, if you will—that we drew from these visualizations?1. People tend to kill people of about the same age 2. The mass of killings occurs among adults aged about 15-50 3. There is a mass of homicides reflecting that adults 20-40 kill children 0-6, with very young children (<1 year) at most risk. Children aged from 6 until puberty are relatively safe from homicide. 4. There is a small but noticeable crest indicating that young adults (late teens to 20 years of age or so) prey upon the elderly: eldercide.Continuing with data from Allen, Safari, and Buckner (2020), what age-related patterns of homicide were dominated by family members (as opposed to intimate partners, strangers, or acquaintances)?What do the terms uxoricide and filicide mean?What does Daly and Wilson's theory of male sexual proprietariness predict regarding the association of residency with uxoricide? Were those predictions supported by empirical findings?What does Daly and Wilson's theory of male sexual proprietariness predict regarding the association of reproductive value with uxoricide? How is female reproductive value related to female age? What then is the predicted association between female age and uxoricide risk?What were Daly and Wilson's findings regarding the association of female age with uxoricide risk? What potential confound challenged that conclusion? What evidence did Daly and Wilson marshal in ruling out that confound?Let's turn now to the phenomenon of male infanticide across species. Based on the phylogenetic analysis conducted by Lukas & Huchard (2014), what seems to be the function of male infanticide across mammals generally?Explain how the following factors are related to the evolution of male infanticide, according to findings from Lukas & Huchard (2014). In other words, is the factor linked with greater or lesser likelihood of male infanticide evolving in a mammalian species, and why?Polygyny vs. monogamy Increased sex ratio (more females than males) Increased reproductive skew (a dominant male sires a larger percentage of offspring than other males) Larger testiclesWhat is meant by "paternity confusion" in the context of male infanticide?What is partible paternity, and where are such beliefs most frequently found?major hypothesized functions for human filicide/infanticide, as well as the empirical support for each function. Based on a review of cross-cultural evidence, what was the most strongly supported factor?Paternity uncertainty/Genetic relatedness Limited resources Infant viability Maternal age (and you should be able to explain why this factor is predicted to be relevant) Offspring sexWhat is the Trivers-Willard hypothesis?when conditions are favorable (meaning basically that the mother is in excellent physical condition due to an abundance of resources), females of a species might be expected to preferentially give birth to sons, but when conditions are unfavorable, females of a species might be expected to preferentially give birth to daughters. The basis for this argument is the fact that a high-quality male can potentially have many more offspring than a high-quality female, at least in the large majority of species (because of differences in the parental investment that each sex must provide). So, when the chances of producing a high-quality offspring are good, males should be preferred. Note, however, that evidence supporting this hypothesis is generally lacking.Based on studies conducted by Daly and Wilson, what single factor puts children at greatest risk of filicide?Nobes, Panagiotaki, and Jonsson (2019) suggest that two confounding factors threaten Daly and Wilson's findings. What are these two factors? Emerging research reported by Nobes, Panagiotaki, and Jonsson (2019) controls for these factors. What do their results indicate?Who was Thomas Hobbes, what did he suggest about human nature, and what were the implications of his view of human nature for his views on political governance?According to the phylogenetic analysis of lethal aggression in mammals that was conducted by Gomez et al. (2016), how is "lethal aggression" operationalized?What was the estimated rate of lethal aggression in the ancestor of all mammals?0.3%, or roughly 1 in 300.What was the estimated rate of lethal aggression in the ancestor of all humans (which we can think of as "the state of nature")?about 2%.What two factors are associated with the evolution of greater lethal aggression in mammals, according to Gomez et al.? Is there an interaction between these two factors, according to Gomez et al. (2016)?An interaction occurs when the effect of one variable depends upon the level of another variable. That is, the effect of Variable A on the outcome measure will be different based on the level of Variable B. This is also called "moderation." A simple example: What if a Covid-19 vaccine was very effective at preventing death among adults but was ineffective among children less than 12 years old? This would be an interaction. The effect of the vaccine on mortality depends upon age. Equivalently, the effect of the vaccine is moderated by age. --definititionAccording to the analyses conducted by Gomez et al. (2016), how do levels of lethal violence in historic and contemporary states compare to the estimated rate of lethal aggression in the ancestor of all humans? Does this generally support the view of Thomas Hobbes or of Jean-Jacques Rousseau?What did sociologists notice about lethal violence in Europe over the last millennium? What sociologist suggested European violence dramatically declined during this period, and sought to account for this decline in a book entitled The Civilizing Process?Who introduced parent-offspring conflict theory to biology, and what are the key expectations and conclusions that follow from it?What developmental transition is expected to be a particularly intense period of conflict according to parent-offspring conflict theory, and why?What biologist extended parent-offspring conflict theory to the maternal-fetal relationship?Given that the title of Haig's original, groundbreaking paper on this topic is "Genetic Conflicts in Human Pregnancy," what are the major genetic conflicts that Haig identifies?Haig identifies three conflicting sets of genes at work in the mother-fetus relationship: 1) genes that are in the mother but are not in the fetus; 2) genes that are in the fetus that come from the mother; 3) genes that are in the fetus that come from the father.Which set of genes should in theory weight the welfare of the mother's future offspring most strongly compared to the welfare of the fetus?genes that are in the mother but not in the fetus. Why? Because those genes are not in the fetus, but have a 50% chance of being in mother's future offspring.Which set of genes should in theory weight the welfare of the mother's future offspring least strongly compared to the welfare of the fetus?genes that are in the fetus that come from the father. Why? Because paternal genes have less of a chance of being in mother's future offspring than do maternal genes—given that the mother might produce future offspring with men who are not the father of the current fetus. We don't know the exact percentage chance that these paternal genes will be in the mother's future offspring, but that probability must be less than 50%.Identify three phenomena that can occur during pregnancy that are generally understood to result from conflict between mother and fetus?What is the biological definition of "cooperation"?List several examples of benefit-delivery in the natural world that are not instances of cooperation, as strictly defined from an adaptationist perspective.Why is cooperation an evolutionary problem?What is by-product mutualism, and what are some examples of animal behavior that we looked at in class that appear to be by-product mutualisms?What is the Prisoner's Dilemma Game?*Be very familiar with its general payoff structure. Be able to recognize Prisoner's Dilemma payoffs using the terms reward, temptation, sucker's payoff, and punishmentWhat is the difference between a one-shot vs. an iterated prisoner's dilemma?What is the tit-for-tat strategy, and how did it fare in Robert Axelrod's famous prisoner's dilemma tournament?What is direct reciprocity AKA reciprocal altruism, and who introduced it as a biological theory?What formula captures the conditions under which reciprocal altruism can evolve?*Understand the formula's parameters and how it is similar to Hamilton's rule.What are the three consequences of the reciprocal altruism equation that we identified in class?Relatedly, what three conditions did we suggest would be present in animal species characterized by reciprocal altruism?In Wilkinson's 1984 paper on blood sharing in vampire bats, what two conditions for reciprocal altruism were most clearly present in the species? What alternative explanations—instead of reciprocal altruism—did skeptics of Wilkinson's findings suggest might really be accounting for blood sharing? In Carter and Wilkinson's (2013) experiment that addressed the charges made by skeptics, what was the best predictor of the amount of blood that a particular vampire bat shared with a specific other individual?