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This is a vocabulary of mathematical terms that are frequently used in a unit involving linear functions and equations.
Terms in this set (36)
Domain
The set of input value of a relation.
Range
The set of output value of a relation.
Relation
A mapping, or pairing, of input values with output values
Function
A relation for which each input value has exactly one output value.
Vertical LIne Test
A relation is a function if and only if no vertical line intersects the graph of the relation at more than one point.
Equation in Two Variables
An equation that contains two variables.
Independent Variable
The input variable in an equation in two variables.
Dependent Variable
The output variable in an equation in two variables.
Linear Function
An equation that can be written in the form y = mx + b.
Function Notation
Using f(x) (or similar symbol such as g(x) or h(x)) to represent the dependent variable (y) of a function.
Slope
The ratio of the vertical change (the rise) to the horizontal change (the run) for a nonvertical line. ( Note: m = (y2-y1)/(x2-x1))
Parallel
Two lines in the same plane that do not meet. (Note: These lines have the same slope.)
Perpendicular
Two lines in the same plane that meet at right angles. (Note: These lines have negative reciprocal slopes to each other.)
Rate of Change
A comparison of how much one quantity changes, on average, relative to the change on another. Slope can be used to represent this value.
Parent Function
The most basic function in a family of functions that share characteristics.
y-intercept
The y-coordinate of a point where the graph intersects the y-axis. (Note: x = 0)
x-intercept
The x-coordinate of a point where the graph intersects the x-axis. (Note: y = 0)
Slope Intercept Form
A line with equation y = mx + b where m is the slope of the line and b is the y-intercept.
Standard Form
A linear equation in the form Ax + By = C where A and B are not both zero. (Note: Slope = -A/B; y-intercept = C/B; x-intercept = C/A)
Point-Slope Form
A linear equation in the form y-y1= m(x-x1) that has a slope of m and passes through the point (x1,y1). It may also be written the in form y= m(x-x1) + y1.
Direct Variation
A linear equation in the for y = ax.
Constant of Variation
In the direct linear variation equation y = ax, the a represents this value.
Scatter Plot
A graph of a set of data points (x,y).
Positive Correlation
In a linear regression line with a positive slope, this number denotes how well the line fits the data points.
Negative Correlation
In a linear regression line with a negative slope, this number denotes how well the line fits the data points.
Correlation Coefficient
A number, r, that represents how well the regression line fits the data points. (Note: -1<=r<=1)
Best-Fitting Line
The line that lies as close as possible vertically to all the data points in a scatter plot.
Absolute Value Function
A function that contains an absolute value expression.
Vertex
For an absolute value function, it is either the highest or lowest value of the function.
Transformation
A changing of a graph's size, shape, position, or orientation.
Translation
A translation that shifts a graph horizontally and/or vertically, but does not change its size, shape, or orientation. A sliding of a graph.
Reflection
A transformation that flips a graph or figure about a line.
Linear Inequality in Two Variables
A linear inequality that can be written in one of the following forms:
Ax+By<C; Ax+By<=C; Ax+By>C; Ax+By>=C;
Solution
A number or ordered pair that produces a true statement when substituted back into the equation.
Graph
The set of all points (x,y) that represent solutions of the equations or inequalities.
Half-Planes
The two regions into the the boundary line of a linear inequality divides the coordinate plane.
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