A&P 2 Exam 1: Endocrine, Blood and Heart
Terms in this set (166)
What 2 systems coordinate the functions of ALL body systems? Together, what is this coordinated, interlocking super system called?
The nervous and endocrine systems.
The neuroendocrine system. (Parts of the nervous system stimulate or inhibit the release of hormones, and hormones may promote or inhibit the generation of nerve impulses)
The endocrine system controls body activities by releasing mediator molecules called?
The nervous system control body actions through?
What 2 types of glands does the body contain?
exocrine and endocrine
What type of gland secretes their products into ducts, and the ducts carry the secretions to the target site?
What type of glands secrete their products (hormones) into the interstitial fluid surrounding the secretory cells from which they diffuse into capillaries to be carried away by blood?
**Endocrine glands constitute the endocrine system and include what glands? (5)
Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal glands.
*know where these are located!
Although hormones travel in blood throughout the body, they affect only...?
specific target cells
What do the target cells contain for which hormones can bind to?
specific protein or glycoprotein receptors
When a hormone is present in excess, the decrease in the number of receptors may occur. This is called?
When a hormone is deficient, an increase in the number of receptors may occur. This is called?
Hormones that act locally without first entering the blood stream are called?
Hormones that travel in blood and act on distant target cells are called?
circulating hormones or ENDOCRINES
What are included under "lipid-soluble hormones" and act as a local hormone(act on receptors inside the cell) in several tissues? (3)
steroids, thyroid hormones, and nitric oxide
Water-soluble hormones include?
(act on receptors in the plasma membrane)
The amines (all amino-acid based hormones except thyroid hormone): peptides, proteins and glycoproteins.
Major difference bw water soluble and lipid soluble proteins?
Water soluble circulate in plasma in a free, unattached form. Lipid soluble must bind to a transport protein to be carried in the blood.
Transport proteins improve transportability of lipid soluble hormones by?
making them temporarily water-soluble
LIPID WITHIN CELLS (reread p 3 of notes
WATER WITHIN BLOOD (reread p. 3 of notes)
**The responsiveness of a target cell to a hormone depends on the hormone's? (3)
Concentration, the abundance of the target cell's hormone receptors, and the influences exerted by other hormones.
**Hormone secretion is controlled by? (3)
Signals from the nervous system, by chemical changes in the blood, and by other hormones.
**What is the major integrating link between the nervous and endocrine systems?
**They hypothalamus and the pituitary gland (hypophysis) regulate virtually all aspects of? (4)
Growth, development, metabolism, and homeostasis
**The pituitary gland is located in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and is differentiated into the? (3 parts)
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis), the Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis), and Pars intermedia
Hormones of the ant pit are controlled by releasing or inhiting hormones produced by the?
**What 7 hormones are produced by the anterior pituitary?
1. Human Growth Hormone (HGH, secreted by somatotrophs)
2. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH, secreted by thyrotrophs)
3. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH, gonadotrophs)
4. Luteinizing Hormone (LH and FSH, gonadotrophs)
5. Prolactin (PRL, lactrotrophs)
6. Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH, corticotrophs)
7. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH, corticotrophs)
Secretion of anterior pituitary gland hormones are regulated by what 2 things?
Hypothalamic regulating hormones and by negative feedback mechanisms.
Which ant pit hormone is the most plentiful?
HGH promotes the synthesis and secretion of small protein hormones called Insulinlike growth factors (IGFs). What do IGFs do?
stimulate general body growth and regulate various aspects of metabolism.
What hormone initiates secretion of estrogen in the ovaries and sperm production in testes?
What hormone stimulates ovulation by ovarian cells and testosterone secretion by the testes?
What hormone initiates and maintains milk secretion by the mammary glands?
Controls production and secretion of hormones called glucocorticoids by the cortex of the adrenal gland?
Hormone that increases skin pigmentation?
* The neural connection between the hypothalamus and the neurohypophysis is via the...?
(Hypo thalamo hypo physeal)
What hormones are made by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary?
Oxytocin and Antidieuretic hormorne
Where is the thyroid gland located?
Just below the larynx. Has right and left lateral lobes
**Which of the 3 thyroid hormones secreted by the follicular cells of thyroid follicles secretes Calcitonin (CT)?
Thyroid hormones are synthesized from?
Iodine and Tyrosine. Happens within a large glycoprotein molecule called Thyroglobulin
**What do thyroid hormones regulate? (4)
oxygen use, basal metabolic rate, Growth and development, and cellular metabolism.
What does Calcitonin do?
lowers blood level of calcium. Secretion is controlled by calcium levels in the blood.
What produces parathyroid hormone (PTH)?
Principal cells of the parathyroid glands
What does PTH do?
regulates the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate by increasing blood calcium levels and decreasing blood phosphate levels
The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys and consist of?
an outer cortex and an inner medulla
**The adrenal cortex is divided into 3 zones, each of which secretes different hormones. Name the outer zone and what it secretes?
zona glomerulosa. secretes mineralocorticoids.
**Name middle zone of adrenal cortex and what it secretes?
zona fasciculata. secretes glucocorticoids
**Name the inner zone of the adrenal cortex and what is secretes?
zona reticularis. secretes androgens
**What do glucocorticoids do? (6)
1. promote breakdown of proteins
2. formation of glucose
4. resistance to stress
5. anti-inflammatory effects
6. depression of the immune response
What are Adrenal Medulla secretions?
epinephrine and norepinephrine which produce effects similar to sympathetic responses. Released under stress by direct innervation from the ANS.
What organ can be classified as both a endocrine and exocrine gland?
**Pancreatic cell that secretes the hormone glucagon which increases blood glucose levels?
**Pancreatic cell that secretes the hormone insulin which decreases blood glucose levels?
What sex hormones do the ovaries produce?
estrogens and progesterone. (also inhibin and relaxin)
Testes = testosterone and inhibin
Where is the pineal gland located?
attached to the roof of the third ventricle inside the brain
What does the pineal gland secrete?
melatonin. Linked to dark-light cycle; circadian rhythms.
** The thymus gland secretes several hormones related to..?
**Thymosin, thymic humoral-factor, thymic factor, and thymopoietin promote?
the proliferation and maturation of T cells, a type of white blood cell involved in immunity.
What do NSAIDS such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen inhibit?
a key enzyme in prostaglandin synthesis
What is the first stage of general adaptation syndrome?
Hyper secretion of HGH during childhood results in?
The same hyper secretion of HGH during adulthood results in?
What is a goiter?
An enlarged thyroid gland
WATCH TOP 10 GLANDS VIDEO!
WATCH TOP 10 GLANDS VIDEO
START CHAP 17:
To obtain nutrients and remove wastes, cells must be serviced by?
Blood and interstitial fluid
What is blood and what is it composed of?
A connective tissue. It's composed of plasma and formed elements.
What does interstitial fluid do?
Bathes body cells
What does blood transport?
O2, CO2, nutrients, heat, wastes, and hormones.
**What does blood help regulate? (3)
pH, body temp, and water content of cells
**How does blood prevent blood loss through clotting and combat toxins and microbes?
through certain phagocytic white blood cells or specialized plasma proteins.
**What are the physical characteristics of blood? (3)
Viscosity = greater than that of water
Temperature = 38 degrees C or 100.4 F
pH = 7.35-7.45
**Blood constitutes what percent of body weight?
8%. A volume range of 4-6 liters
Blood consists of?
55% plasma and 45% formed elements**
**Blood plasma is 91.5% water and 8.5% solutes. The principal solutes include..? (7)
1. proteins (albumins, globulins, fibrinogen)
5. respiratory gases
7. waste products
**The formed elements in blood include..?
1. erythrocytes (red blood cells or RBCs)
2. leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs)
3. thrombocytes (platelets)
The % of total blood volume occupied by red blood cells is called?
the hematocrit. (low hematocrit = anemia and high = polycythemia)
What type of blood cells contain the oxygen-carrying protein, hemoglobin?
RBCs or erythrocytes
What is the function of hemoglobin?
transport oxygen and some carbon dioxide. Also functions in blood pressure regulation (nitrous oxide (NO) binds to hemoglobin and hemoglobin can release it)
Released NO from hemoglobin causes?
vasodilation which improves blood flow and enhances oxygen delivery to the area.
Production of abnormal hemoglobin can result in...?
serious blood disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia
**How long do red blood cells live and why?
120 days. bc of the wear and tear on their plasma membranes as they squeeze through blood capillaries.
Where does erythrocyte formation occur?
in adult red bone marrow of some bones
What is the main stimulus for erythropoiesis (erythrocyte formation) is?
hypoxia (inadequate O2 delivery due to: decreased rbc count, decreased amount of hemoglobin, decreased availability of O2)
What is a diagnostic test that indicates the rate of erythropoiesis and is useful in diagnosing and treating anemia?
What type of blood cells are nucleated and do not contain hemoglobin?
Leukocytes or white blood cells (WBCs)
What are the two principal types of of WBCs?
1. Granular (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils)
2. Agranular (lymphocytes and monocytes)
How long do white blood cells usually live?
a few hours to a few days
**What is the general function of leukocytes?
to combat inflammation and infection
WBCs leave the blood by?
The chemical attraction of WBCs to a disease or injury site is termed?
**Combats infection and inflammation through phagocytosis (engulf and eat).
**Combat the effects of histamine in allergic reactions, phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes, and combat parasitic worms.
**Develop into mast cells that liberate heparin, histamine, and serotonin in allergic reactions that intensify the inflammatory response.
**In response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens, differentiate into tissue plasma cells the produce antibodies
**Destroy foreign invaders directily
Hemostasis refers to?
the stoppage of bleeding
What does hemostats involve?
vascular spasm, platelet plug formation and blood coagulation
What is heparin an example of?
an anticoagulant...a substance that inhibits coagulation
**Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel is called?
**A thrombus (clot), bubble of air, fat from broken bones, or piece of debris transported by the bloodstream that moves from its site of origin is called an?
What are the two major blood groups?
ABO and Rh
In the ABO system, what agglutinogens (antigens) determine blood types?
A and B
**A condition in which the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is reduced. Usually characterized by a decreased erythrocyte count or hemoglobin deficiency.
anemia. (kinds of anemia include iron-deficiency, pernicious, hemorrhagic, hemolytic, Thalassemia and aplastic.
An inherited deficiency of clotting in which bleeding may occur spontaneously or after only minor trauma?
**A malignant disease of blood-forming tissues characterized by uncontrolled production and accumulation of immature leukocytes.
**In _____ leukemia, there is an accumulation of mature leukocytes in the bloodstream because they do not die at the end of their normal lifespan
START CHAP 18
START CHAP 18
What does the cardiovascular system consist of?
the blood, heart and blood vessels
**Where is the heart located?
the heart is situated between the lungs in the mediastinum with about two-thirds of its mass to the left of the midline
What two rigid structures does the heart lie between?
the vertebral column and the sternum
The heart is enclosed and held in place by the?
Between the parietal and visceral layers of the inner serous pericardium is the..?
pericardial cavity. a potential space filled with fluid that reduces friction bw the two membranes.
Inflammation of the pericardium is called..?
What is cardiac tamponade?
Pressure from bleeding or fluid in the pericardial cavity the compresses the heart and is potentially lethal.
What are the 3 layers of the heart wall?
epicardium, myocardium and endocardium
What is the myocardium composed of?
Endocarditis is an inflammation of the endocardium and usually involves the..?
The chambers of the heart include?
two upper atria and two lower ventricles
What separates the heart chambers?
Grooves that contain blood vessels and fat called Sulci
What slightly increases the capacity of each atrium?
small pouches on the anterior surface of each atrium called auricles
Where does the right atrium receive blood from?
the superior and inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus
**Blood passes from the right atrium into the right ventricle through the..?
What forms most of the anterior surface of the heart?
the right ventricle
**Blood passes from the right ventricle to the pulmonary trunk via the..?
pulmonary semilunar valve
**The left atrium receives blood from..?
the pulmonary veins
**Blood passes from the left atrium to the left ventricle through the..?
bicuspid (mitral) valve
What does the left ventricle form?
the apex of the heart
Blood passes from the left ventricle into the aorta through?
the aortic semilunar valve
Why are the atria walls thin?
because they deliver blood to the ventricles
The ventricle walls are thicker because?
they pump blood greater distances
Why are the right ventricle walls thinner?
bc pump blood to lungs which are nearby and offer little resistance to blood flow
Why are the left ventricle walls thicker?
bc they pump blood through the body where the resistance to blood flow is greater.
Heart valves open and close in response to what?
pressure changes as the heart contracts and relaxes
What prevents blood flow from the ventricles back into the atria?
**How is back flow prevented?
by the contraction of papillary muscles. When they contract they tighten the chordae tendinae which prevent the valve cusps from reverting.
What do semilunar valves allow?
What do they prevent?
allow ejection of blood from the heart into arteries
prevent back flow of blood into the ventricles
When do semilunar valves open?
When pressure in the ventricles exceeds pressure in the arteries
**What is stenosis?
a narrowing of a heart valve which restricts blood flow (heart valve disorder)
How can stenosed valves be prepared?
by balloon valvuloplasty, surgical repair of valve replacement.
Which side of the heart is the pump for systemic circulation?
The left side. It pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs out to the vessels of the body
Which side of the heart is the pump for pulmonary circulation?
The right side. It receives deoxygenated blood from the body and sends it to the lungs for oxygenation.
What does coronary (cardiac) circulation do?
the flow of blood through the many vessels that flow through the myocardium of the heart delivers oxygenated blood and nutrients and removes carbon dioxide and wastes from the myocardium
What are the principal arteries that branch from the aorta and carry oxygenated blood called?
right and left coronary arteries
Deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium primarily via what principal vein?
What does cardiac muscle require from extracellular fluid for contraction?
**an inadequate blood supply to an organ or part of the body, especially the heart muscles is
ischemia (reduced blood flow through coronary arteries may cause this)
**How is ischemia often manifested?
through angina pectoris (chest pain). Ischemia causes hypoxia and may weaken myocardial cells.
**What might be the cause of a myocardial infarction?
a complete obstruction of flow in a coronary artery. Tissue DISTAL to the obstruction dies and is replaced by scar tissue.
What is the job of the intrinsic cardiac conduction system?
to initiate and distribute impulses throughout the heart so that is depolarizes and contracts in an orderly, sequential manner
What type of cells act as a pacemaker to set the rhythm for the entire heart?
autorhythmic cells (self-excitable) aka cardiac pacemaker cells
**What are the components of the cardiac conduction system? (5 things)
1. sinoartrial (SA) node (pacemaker-sets pace for heart and has fastest depolarization rate)
2. atrioventricular (AV) node (here impulse delayed about 0.1 s allowing atria to respond and complete their contraction before the ventricles contract)
3. atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) = the only electrical connection between the atria and ventricles
4. right and left bundle branches (av bundle splits into these)
5. conduction myofibers (Purkinje fibers) = completes the pathway through the inter ventricular septum, penetrate into the heart apex and turn superiorly into the ventricular walls.
Where is SA node located?
right atrial wall
What do cardiac muscles rely on for ATP production?
aerobic cellular respiration
**Other than aerobic cellular respiration, what is another way cardiac muscle produces ATP?
**What does presence of creatine kinase (CK) in the blood indicate?
injury of cardiac muscle usually caused by a myocardial infarction
Electrical currents can be detected at the surface of the body and a recording of the electrical changes that accompany each cardiac cycle (heartbeat) is called an?
electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
What does an ECG help determine?
if the conduction pathway is abnormal, if the heart is enlarged, and if certain regions are damaged.
**In a typical Lead II record, what 3 clearly visible waves accompany each heartbeat?
1. P Wave (atrial depolarization - spread of impulse from SA node over atria
2. QRS Complex (ventricular depolarization - spread of impulse through ventricles)
3. T wave (ventricular repolarization)
What does the cardiac cycle consist of?
systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) of both atria, followed by the same of both ventricles
Phases of cardiac cycle?
atrial systole, ventricular systole, and the relaxation period. the atria and ventricles alternately contract and relax forcing blood from areas of high pressure to areas of lower pressure.
What is stroke volume?
What is the formula for stroke volume?
SV is the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle.
Stroke Volume = End diastole volume - End systolic volume
SV = EDV - ESV
Where does the sound of a heartbeat primarily come from?
the turbulence in blood flow caused by the closure of the valves NOT from the contraction of the heart muscle (*listening to sounds within the body is called auscultation)
**What is cardiac output and what is the formula for it?
CO is the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle (or the right ventricle) into the aorta (or pulmonary trunk) each minute. So CO equals the stroke volume (the amt of blood ejected by the left vent with each contraction x the heart rate (# of beats per minute)
CO = SV x HR (THIS FORMULA ON TEST!!!!!)
_____________ occurs when blood begins to remain in the ventricles increasing the preload and ultimately causing an overstretching of the heart and less forceful contraction
congestive heart failure
(blood pools bc not enough force from contraction to get it out)
**What does left ventricular failure result in?
pulmonary edema (fluid around lungs)
** What does right ventricular failure result in?
**Nervous control of the cardiovascular system stems from the cardiovascular center in the....?