Test 4 Review

Kellogg-Briand Pact
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Terms in this set (85)
Originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations.
-5th act was the only one to happen after WW2 started and it allowed Arms can be sold "Cash and Carry" basis
Taft-Hartley Acta 1947 law giving the president power to halt major strikes by seeking a court injunction and permitting states to forbid requirements in labor contracts that force workers to join a union."Court-Packing" IncidentFDR proposed that the president be authorized to appoint to the Supreme Court an additional justice for each current justice who was older than about 70 yrs old; everyone was outragedFair Labor Standards Act1938 law that set a minimum wage, a maximum workweek of 44 hours, and outlawed child laborWorks Progress Administration-New Deal agency that helped create jobs for those that needed them. It created around 9 million jobs working on bridges, roads, and buildings.Agricultural Adjustment Act(FDR) 1933 and 1938 , Helped farmers meet mortgages. -Unconstitutional because the government was paying the farmers to waste 1/3 of there products. -Created by Congress in 1933 as part of the New DealJulius and Ethel Rosenberg-Arrested in 1950 for being possibly part of the Manhattan Project spy ring. -Tried and sentenced to death in 1951, executed 1953 -Impossible to say for sure if they were guilty or not but were killed because they did confess, they claimed to be innocent.Tennessee Valley Authority-A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil. -A "show piece" for the New DealNational Industrial Recovery Act-Permitted all workers to join unions of their choice, allowed workers to bargain collectively for wage increases and benefits, allowed workers to go on strike to try to force employers to meet their demands -NIRARichard Nixon-Traveled as VP for Eisenhower since Eisenhower didn't like to travel, setting him up to be President, having met leaders around the world and has lots of experience. -Lost to Kennedy after the debateCamelotAfter JFK died, his wife, Jackie, compared their time in the White House to this musical. -Lively atmosphere (time of Idealism, honor and glamour like the court of King Arthur) of the Kennedy administration in the 1960's. -Spirit of America suddenly brought to a close at Kennedy's assassination.Clark Memorandum- (Hoover), US repudiated the Roosevelt Corollary (what's this again?) and promised that the US would not interfere even to collect debtRadio Free-Europe-broadcasts supporting democratic principles and ideals transmitted to people living behind the Iron Curtain -Alternative rock and country to get peoples attention.House Un-American Activities Committee-A congressional committee created to search out disloyal Americans & Communists. -Wanted you to name names so they can subpoena them. Those who refused were cited for contempt of congress and arrested.National Security Act-Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. -It established the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.Apollo 11-Made the first lunar landing, July 20, 1969 - Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin with Mike Collins in orbit. -Kennedy didn't live to see it even though this was what he was working for.Montgomery Bus Boycott-December, 1955-1956 -Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man -Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. and other Alabama religious leaders organized a boycott of buses -Costing enough that the buses eventually desegregated the buses.Ngo Dinh Diem-American ally in South Vietnam from 1954 to 1963; -his repressive regime caused the Communist to thrive in the South and required increasing American military aid to stop a Communist takeover. -He was killed in a coup in 1963. Caused by his discrimination against 80% of his people, the Buddhists.Harry Truman-Became president after FDR died -Have to prove it to him, wanted to be a general but had flat feet, studied law got him into politics -New Dealer -The buck stops here (Meaning I take full responsibility) -selected as VP because of his honesty, and follow through - Became president in a time that was all foreign policy when he's best with local policyMarshall Plan- A plan to show communist that life is better when your not a communist. -This plan was to offer rebuild both non-communist and communist countries of Europe, and whoever wants our help can have it.Berlin Crisis/ Blockade-The Soviets cut off all road and rail contacts with the Allies—air routes left open, -leading to anytime we flew over Russian Airspace we could have been shot down starting another war. Everyone just held their breath -Hoped to force the England, America, and France to abandon Western Berlin; tried to starve them out.NATO-North Atlantic Treaty Organization -NATO's fundamental goal is to safeguard the Allies' freedom and security by political and military means. -There is now 28 countries as NATO members.Chiang Kai-ShekKuomintang Leader in 1925 after Sun Yat-sen died -Nationalist side of the civil war -Recognized Chinese leader when WWII ended, so Mao built up the north and started a full war in 1946 -The US backed him but refused to send troups. -Fled to TaiwanMao Tse-TungCommunist leader of China; gained power through the Chinese civil war; defeated US backed Chiang Kai Shek -Founder of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921 -In 1946 won the Chinese Civil war and set up the communist government that still exist.The Greer IncidentGerman submarin fires torpedos at the American Greer Submarine, helped bring US into warJohn Foster DullesAs Secretary of State. he viewed the struggle against Communism as a classic conflict between good and evil. Believed in containment and the Eisenhower doctrine.Pearl Harbor-United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. -Attacked on December 7, 1941. Lasted 2hr and 20 min.Missile Crisis-Standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union in which the Soviets agreed to remove missiles from Cuba if the United States promised not to invade the island. -Oct. 22-28, 1962 -Kennedy surrounded/blockades Cuba with the Navy -Russia stopped their ships and decided to take the missiles home, Kennedy took that as a win.Domino TheoryA theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control. -EisenhowerBay of Pigs-Failed CIA operation in April 1961to overthrow Castro and take over Cuba using Cuban exiles. -1961Yalta Conference- Created the United Nations -Stalin promises to declare war on japan and invade China 3 months after WWII ended.Franklin D Roosevelt32nd US President - He began New Deal programs to help the nation out of the Great Depression, and he was the nation's leader during most of WWIITruman DoctrinePresident Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology -1947, mainly helped Greece and Turkey - he sent $400 millionContainment Policy-The idea that we don't need to stop communism but we just can't let it expand -Executed by making defense treaties with nations that border communist countries -set up spy stations in nations that border communist countries -Propaganda to provide alternative news sources for the "enslaved" peoplesDwight D. Eisenhower-Leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2--leader of troops in Africa and commander in D-Day invasion -President during integration of Little Rock Central High SchoolVietnam War-A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States. -Ho Chi Minh (Communist)(North) vs Dinh Diem (Non-communist)(South)Lee Harvey OswaldOn November 22, 1963, he assassinated President Kennedy who was riding downtown Dallas, Texas. -Oswald was later shot in front of television cameras by Jack Ruby.Martin Luther King Jr.-U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. -A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. -He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. April 4, 1968 by James Earl Ray -Nobel Peace Prize (1964)Korean War-The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. -The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea. -Divided at the 38th parallel at Yalta in 1950 -Gen. McArthur was in command in this warEleanor Roosevelt-FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women -FDR's 8th cousin, set standard for active First Ladies, gave press conferences, wrote a newspaper column, championing civil rights and women's issuesManhattan Project-Code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War IINASANational Aeronautics and Space Administration -Point was to show Russia we are better than them and can get in space first -Encouraged everyone, (including women) to be involved in math or some job everyone can helpJacqueline Kennedy-!2 years younger than John, the beautiful young wife -From a wealthy Catholic New York family -She and "Jack" met when she was a reporter for the Washington times herald -Married in 1953 -She married down, he married upBerlin Wall-A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West (Russia) -Another symbol of communism vs U.S.Rosa ParksWomen who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)Madam Nhu-The South Vietnamese "first lady" who was infamous for controversial comments -If the Buddhists wish to have another barbecue, I will be glad to supply the gasoline and a match" (talking about the burning themselves in the street) -Always carried her gun with her -She's part of the reason the US decided this wasn't a good Government for this countryKorematsu v. US-Supreme Court case (1944) where the Supreme Court upheld the order providing for the relocation of Japanese Americans. It was not until 1988 that Congress formally apologized and agreed to pay $20,000 2 each survivor -President Reagan signed the civil liberties act of 1988 to apologize and make reparations to internees.Bonus Army-1932 -20,000 WW1 veterans marched in Washington asking for early payment of the 1924 bonus billAlbert EinsteinPhysicist born in Germany who formulated the special theory of relativity and the general theory of relativity.Potsdam Conference- Big three (Truman, Stalin, and Clement Atlee) met in Germany - July 17- August 3, 1945 - Where Truman was when he learned of the Atomic Bomb, met with his advisors, except for Russia (Stalin) - Stalin had two spies in the Manhattan projectGeorge F. KennanA brilliant young diplomat, and a Soviet specialist, who crafted the "containment doctrine."Lend-Lease Act(1941)-act that allowed the US government to send billions of dollars in supplies military equipment to Allied countries in exchange for US rights in their military bases -$7 billion in war materials to lend, lease or give away. by the end of the war $50 billion in materials was given away to England, Russia and ChinaAlger HissA former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. -Advisor to Roosevelt -Sued Chambers for lying. Lost because of Pumpkin Papers, eventually sent to Jaw for 5 years. -The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.Benito Mussolini-(1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance. -Fascist Dictator of Italy that at first used bullying to gain power, then never had full power.Fidel Castro-Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 -Established the first communist government in the new world, in CubaWhittaker Chambers-Editor of Times -was a spy, in the 30's, apologized and was forgiven. -Was called to say who else was in his spy ring, he named Alger Hiss.U-2 Incident-in 1960 the Russians shot down a US spy plane -Flown by Francis Gary Powers -Caused Khrushchev to storm out of the summit meeting in Paris calling Eisenhower a "lair"G.I. Bill-7,600,000 WWII vets got job training or educational assistanceJoseph Stalin-Russian leader who succeeded Lenin (1924) as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition -(1927-1953) 26 years he ruled Russia -"Five year plans" said to unify agricultural and industrial production. He purified Russia w/great purges of 1934-38 killing 30 million peopleWinston Churchill-A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.Herbert HooverRepublican candidate who assumed the presidency (31st president) in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community. The New York Stock Market Crashes October 29, 1929 "Black Tuesday". Passed The 20th Amendment and the 21st Amendment is passed by 1933.Brinkmanship-Push the Russian's to the brink, ready to blow up the world. -If your not ready to go to the brink all is lostHo Chi MinhVietnamese communist revolutionary leader who fought for Japan - became a communist because he needed a party and no one else carried/listened to his problems.Lyndon Johnson-President sworn in 99 minutes after Kennedy was pronounced dead.Massive Retaliationpolicy of threatening to use massive force in response to aggression -if they nuc one of our cities, we need to be able to hit 10 of theirs.Brown v Board of Education1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.Fiver Power Naval Treaty-(Harding), Us, Japan, Britain, France, and Italy limited the size of their naviesFrancisco FrancoFascist leader of the Spanish revolution, helped by Hitler and MussoliniLittle Rock Nine-Elizabeth Eckford, got there first, had to walk alone to the front door, walked to the soldiers was refused. -8 out of the 9 students completed the school year. -2017 first time the little rock 9 were invited to class reunion -Never in the same class as white students even within the schoolLittle Rock Crisis1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. - Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class. Sent to protect them for the whole school year - Central High in Little RockJack Ruby-Killed Lee Harvey Oswald on live TV as Oswald was being transferred to country jail. -He was a local bar ownerFulgencio Batista-Pro-American, brutal, Dictator of Cuba -Overthrown by CastroPeace Corps(JFK)- asked volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, in Africa, Asia, and Latin America -currently 77 worlds are influences/helped from our Peace Corps VolunteersUnited Nations-An international organization formed in the Yalta Conference in February 1945.Atomic Bomb-First atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima - August 6th 1945 - radio the next day (august 7th) saying we have done good with this. look out japan. -Aug. 7th: Russia declared war on Japan and Invaded Manchuria -3 days and then he dropped the next bomb (Aug 9th) -Japanese did not surrendered -Aug 15th for most people but VJ day is technically Sept. 2 1945 the day the papers were signedGeneva AccordsHo Chi Minh ruled north Vietnam and Non-communist Dinh Deim ruled in the south. -1956 the plan was for a nation wide election to unite Vietnam, but Ho Chi Minh would win so no election.