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Terms in this set (49)
Transactional Leadership- focuses on supervision, organization, and performance (most common view of managers) -Use rewards and punishments to promote complianceRelationship Oriented behaviorsAim to enhance employees' skills and create positive work relationshipsConsideration:-creates mutual respect & trust, prioritizes group members' needs and desires -Concern for employee well-being, being friendly, and treating others as equalsEmpowerment-efforts to enhance employee performance, well-being, and positive attitudes -Drives intrinsic motivationServant Leaders-assist others in their need fulfillment, personal development, and growth; "How can I help you?" -Described as selfless, egalitarian, humble, nurturing, empathetic -Characteristics of servant leaders (Table 13.3)Ethical Leaders-focus on being a moral role model -Communicating and promoting ethical values and behaviorsAbuse Supervisionsustained display of hostile verbal and nonverbal behavior by managers Examples: Discouraging or criticizing employees in front of others; "your ideas are stupid" Openly ridiculing Reminding of past errors and missteps Silent treatmentPassive LeadershipWhen leaders avoid/delay taking necessary actions when problems arise -Example: reprimanding an employee for poor performance -Represents a failure in taking responsibility for leading; "Hands off" leadership or leadership "after the fact" -Followers often feel unsupported and demoralizedTransformational LeadersTransform followers' goals, motives, and behavior Motivate followers to pursue organizational goals over self-interests Identify, communicate, and build commitment to a better future Appeal to followers' self-concepts (values, motives, personal identity)4 Key Transformational Leaders1. Inspirational motivation: creating an attractive vision of the future then generating enthusiasm and commitment to the vision 2. Idealized influence: instilling pride, respect, and trust within employees 3. Individualized consideration: providing support, encouragement, and coaching; identifying employee needs then helping achieve those needs 4. Intellectual stimulation: encouraging employees to question the status quo and to seek innovative and creative solutions to problemsLeader Member Exchange TheoryAssumes leaders develop unique one-to-one relationships with followers -Focus is on the quality of the relationship, not the leader's behaviors or traits LMX quality depends on: -Follower characteristics -Leader characteristicsTwo types of relationships:-In-group (high LMX) in which members get along better and have higher trust, respect, and liking -Out-group (low LMX) in which members have more formal relationships with lower levels of trust and respectLeaders want followers who areProductive Reliable Honest Cooperative Proactive FlexibleFollowers want leaders who will:Foster significance and meaning in their work Foster a sense of community and respect Make them feel engaged and energized at workHow to be a better follower-Understand your boss's preferred leadership style, ways of communicating, goals and expectations -Understand your own style, needs, goals, expectations, strengths/weaknesses -Identify gaps or divergences between your boss and of yourself -Adjust or accommodate to the boss's style, goals, expectations etc.Organizational CultureConsists of the shared values and assumptions that guide behavior within an organization Characteristics of Organizational Culture: 1. Shared concept 2. Learned over time 3. Influences behavior at work 4. Impacts outcomes at all three levelsLevels of Organizational Culture1. Observable artifacts- physical manifestations of an organization's culture• Physical structures, office layout, dress codes, ceremonies 2. Espoused values: explicitly stated values and norms preferred by an organization• The values managers hope will directly influence employee behavior 3. Basic underlying assumptions- organizational values that have become taken for granted (hardest to change)Enacted values: values and norms that are actually exhibited• Values employees attribute to an organization based on their observations of what occurs on a daily basis • Important to reduce gaps between espoused and enacted valuesTypes of Organization Culture1. Clan- organizational members are loyal and friendly; a strong emphasis on the team and teamwork 2. Adhocracy- organization desires innovation; organizational members are given autonomy 3. Market- competitive, hard-working, & demanding organizational members; emphasizes productivity & beating the competition 4. Hierarchy- value tradition and formality; emphasizes stability, rules, and efficient processesMechanisms for Changing Cultures-Design of physical space: • Physical spacing among people and buildings; open office or flex space • Location of office furniture -Role modeling, training, teaching, coaching • Structured to provide in-depth introduction about organizational values and underlying assumptions -Explicit rewards, status symbols • Highly visible and meaningful; strong impact on employees • Strongest way to embed culture -Rites and rituals • Planned and unplanned activities and ceremonies • Used to celebrate important events or achievementsOrganizational SocializationProcess by which a person learns the values, norms, and behaviors required to assume a work role • Used by organizations to embed their cultures • Examples: recruiting messages, new employee orientationThree-phase model of socialization:• Anticipatory socialization • Encounter • Change and acquisitionPhase 1: Anticipatory socialization• Occurs before an individual actually joins an organization • Includes information learned about careers and organizations • Learned from current employees, social media, internetPhase 2: Encounter• Employees come to learn what the organization is really like • Organizations use onboarding programsPhase 3: Change and acquisition• Employees master important tasks and roles and adjust to their group's values and normsMentoring•A mentor is a counselor, advisor, and teacher who usually works in a one-on-one relationship with a protégéStress-An adaptive response to environmental demands; an interaction between individual and environment • Characterized by emotional strain affecting a person's physical and cognitive conditionStressorsenvironmental conditions that create physical or emotional demandsJob StressHarmful responses that occur when job requirements do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker Job Stressors: organizational constraints, interpersonal conflict, work overload, low task controlOutcomes of Job Stress• Psychological • Attitudinal • Behavioral • Cognitive • Physical stress • Presenteeism • Fatigue (sleep deprivation) • BurnoutEustressgood stress • Associated with positive emotions and outcomes • Riding a rollercoaster, first day at a new jobThings to Keep In Mind About Stress• Stress is not merely nervous tension • Stress can have positive consequences • Stress is not something to be avoided • The complete absence of stress is death • Stress is inevitable; aim to manage, not escape itProcessing Job StressorsCognitive appraisals- process by which we evaluate the meaning of events and demands • Primary appraisals- perception of stressor: positive, negative, irrelevant • Secondary appraisals- perceived ability to deal/cope with a given demandLimiting the Effects of Stress• Minimize/Remove the stressor • Withdraw from the stressor • Control stress consequences • Seek social supportBurnout1. General feeling of exhaustion; develops when you simultaneously experience too much pressure and too little satisfaction 2. A state of emotional, physical, and mental exhaustion caused by excessive and prolonged stressRecovering From Burnout1. Acknowledge that you are burned out 2. Talk to your boss; talk to friends 3. Know your limits 4. Do not be afraid to say no 5. Take some time off 6. Do not work during playtime 7. Try to get quality sleepAlleviating Sleep Deprivation• Only use bedroom for sleeping & sex • Make a sleep schedule and stick to it • Make bedroom as dark as possible • Go right to sleep when you get home if you work at night • Block out noise • Exercise in the afternoon • Take naps • Don't drink coffee, tea, or cola within 6 hours of bedtimeStresso Over arrangement o Reactive or overreactive emotions o Sense of urgency and hyperactively o Lost or diminished energy o Leads to anxiety o Physically tollingBurnouto Disengagement o Blunted or distant emotions o Sense of helplessness o Motivation is lost or diminished o Leads to feeling depressed o Emotionally tolling