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Portal of entry, adherence, penetration into the host cell, evasion, damage to host tissue
Steps of microbial mechanisms?
what is the mucous membrane portal of entry where most microbes are killed here by HCI and enzymes and if survives can be transmitted via feces?
pneumonia, tb, influenza, measles, small pox
What are some examples of the microbes that enter through the respiratory tract?
typhoid fever, poliomyletitis, shigellosis
What are some examples of the microbes that enter through the Gl ?
when microbes enter through hair follicles, sweat glands, or by boring through this tissue they are using what tissue as a portal of entry?
When microbes enter through punctures, injections, bites, cuts, surgery, or splitting they are using what portal of entry?
samonilla typhimurium (ingested), streptococcus pneumoniae (inhaled), yersenia pestis (bubonic plague- no prefered portal)
What are some examples of disease that can cause disease using a specific mode of entry?
if the infectous dose for a sample of population is 50% how would you express this measurement of virulence?
the lower the number the higher the virulence
what does a low number in infectous dose or lethal dose measurements mean in regards to the virulence?
letal kills and infectous get sick
what is the difference between lethal dose measurements and infectous dose measurements?
surface molecules called adhesins or ligands
In adherence how what helps the microbe adhere to the host?
use of capsule, components of the cell wall (M protein), enzymes (such as coagulase, kinases, hyaluronidase, collagenase, IgA proteases), and antigenic variation
What are some of the ways that microbes employ evasion?
breaks away from blood clot when immune cells try to isolate the microbe
how does the enzyme kinase help the microbe in evasion?
spreading factor (move through cells)
How does the enzyme hyaluronidase help the microbe in evasion?
alters surface proteins so that it can not be fought with existing antibodies
How does the microbe use antigenic variation?
produce siderophores, siderophore bind to iron, siderophore binds to bacteria, bacterium takes siderophore inside
What are the step that the siderophores go through to get the nutrients (iron) and bring it back to the bacterium?
multiplying until cell ruptures, depriving host cell of needed nutrients, producing toxic waste products, and toxins
What is the direct damage to host tissues?
What is the product that is produced by bacterium and secreted by proteins, is usually carried on plamid or prophage, diffuse easily into the blood, can be produced by gram negative and positive and is the most lethal substance known?
botulism and staphylococcus food poisoning
What are some examples of disease cause by bacterium exotoxins?
What exotoxin makes proteins in the plasma membrane and disrupts the phospholipid layer?
What product produced by bacterium is part of the cell wall, produced by gram negatives only, part of the lipopolysaccharide and is only released when a cell wall is damaged?
This response is present when a Gram negative cell is ingested by a macrophage, the macrophage degrades bacterium and releases IL-1, IL-1 is carried through the blood vessels to hypothalamus, then the IL-1 causes the hypothalamus to reset at higher temperature?
When a bacterium is ingested by a macrophage, phagocyte produces tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a), and then TNF-a binds to capillaries making them permeable it causes this condition?
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