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What is the term meaning the ability to cause disease?


what is the term for the measurement of that ability?

Portal of entry, adherence, penetration into the host cell, evasion, damage to host tissue

Steps of microbial mechanisms?

mucous membranes, skin, parenteral route

What are the three ways microbes get inside host?

respiratory tract

What is the easiest and most often used mucous membranes use for portal of entry?


what is the mucous membrane portal of entry where most microbes are killed here by HCI and enzymes and if survives can be transmitted via feces?

pneumonia, tb, influenza, measles, small pox

What are some examples of the microbes that enter through the respiratory tract?

typhoid fever, poliomyletitis, shigellosis

What are some examples of the microbes that enter through the Gl ?

Genitourinary tract

what is the portal entry for STD's?

unbroken mucous membranes, cuts or abrasions

how do microbes enter throug the GU?

genital warts, herpes, HIV

What are some examples of the viruses that enter through the GU?


when microbes enter through hair follicles, sweat glands, or by boring through this tissue they are using what tissue as a portal of entry?

parenteral route

When microbes enter through punctures, injections, bites, cuts, surgery, or splitting they are using what portal of entry?

samonilla typhimurium (ingested), streptococcus pneumoniae (inhaled), yersenia pestis (bubonic plague- no prefered portal)

What are some examples of disease that can cause disease using a specific mode of entry?


if the infectous dose for a sample of population is 50% how would you express this measurement of virulence?

the lower the number the higher the virulence

what does a low number in infectous dose or lethal dose measurements mean in regards to the virulence?


If the lethal dose for a sample of population is 50% how would you express this measurement?

letal kills and infectous get sick

what is the difference between lethal dose measurements and infectous dose measurements?

surface molecules called adhesins or ligands

In adherence how what helps the microbe adhere to the host?


What is the term for communities of microbes and their products that attach to surfaces?


Biofilm is what percentage of all bacterial infection?

penetrate the host cell

What must the microbe do to infect a host cell after it attaches to it?

plasma membrane

When the microbe attaches to the host cell it causes changes in the host cell what?

use of capsule, components of the cell wall (M protein), enzymes (such as coagulase, kinases, hyaluronidase, collagenase, IgA proteases), and antigenic variation

What are some of the ways that microbes employ evasion?

by using M protien

what components of a cell wall does a microbe in evasion?


What enzyme clots fibrin?

shields microbe from WBC

How does the enzyme coagulase help the microbe in evasion?


what enzyme breaks down fibrin?

breaks away from blood clot when immune cells try to isolate the microbe

how does the enzyme kinase help the microbe in evasion?


what enzyme breaks down hyaluronic acid?

spreading factor (move through cells)

How does the enzyme hyaluronidase help the microbe in evasion?


what enzyme breaks down collagen?

IgA proteases

what enzyme destroys IgA antibodies?

alters surface proteins so that it can not be fought with existing antibodies

How does the microbe use antigenic variation?

using host nutrients

How does the microbe damage the host tissues?

produce siderophores, siderophore bind to iron, siderophore binds to bacteria, bacterium takes siderophore inside

What are the step that the siderophores go through to get the nutrients (iron) and bring it back to the bacterium?


what is the protein that bind iron stronger that hemoglobin

multiplying until cell ruptures, depriving host cell of needed nutrients, producing toxic waste products, and toxins

What is the direct damage to host tissues?


what is the poisonous substances that are mostly protein enzymes?


what is the measure of the virulence of the toxin


What is the term that refers to a toxin in the blood?

exotoxins and endotoxins

What are the two types of toxins?


What is the product that is produced by bacterium and secreted by proteins, is usually carried on plamid or prophage, diffuse easily into the blood, can be produced by gram negative and positive and is the most lethal substance known?


What are the antibodies produced by the body that can bind to the exotoxin?


What is the altered toxin used to stimulate the immune system?

diphtheria and tetanus

What are some examples of a toxoid?

botulism and staphylococcus food poisoning

What are some examples of disease cause by bacterium exotoxins?


In A-B toxins, the A is what part of the exotoxin?


In A-B toxins the B is what part of the exotoxin?

A-B toxins

What kind of toxin inhibits protein synthesis and kills the cell?

membrane-disrupting toxins

What exotoxin causes lysis in the host cell plasma membrane?

Membran-disrupting toxins

What exotoxin makes proteins in the plasma membrane and disrupts the phospholipid layer?

leukocidins and hemolysins

What are some examples of membrane-disrupting toxins?


The membrane-disrupting toxin leukocidins is a toxin that kills what?


The membrane-disrupting toxin hemolysins is a toxin that kills what?


What is the term for an intense immune response or a super immune response?


What product produced by bacterium is part of the cell wall, produced by gram negatives only, part of the lipopolysaccharide and is only released when a cell wall is damaged?

pyrogenic reponse

This response is present when a Gram negative cell is ingested by a macrophage, the macrophage degrades bacterium and releases IL-1, IL-1 is carried through the blood vessels to hypothalamus, then the IL-1 causes the hypothalamus to reset at higher temperature?

Septic shock

This condition is due to a loss of blood pressure due to an endotoxin?

septic shock

When a bacterium is ingested by a macrophage, phagocyte produces tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a), and then TNF-a binds to capillaries making them permeable it causes this condition?


Septic shock can cause large amounts of fluids to be lost and may even cause what?


Which measure (LD or ID) is used to express virulence of pathogens or toxins?


In a biofilm what is the first layer?


Dental plague, algae on a pool, and soap scum are all examples of what?

spreading factor (helps move through collagen)

How does the enzyme collgenase help with evasion?


What exotoxins attack nerve cells?


What exotoxin attacks GI tract cells?


What exotoxin attacks heart cells?

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