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BIOSPHERE

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ecology
scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment
biosphere
the combined portions of the planet in which all life exists, including land, water, air, and atmosphere
species
a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring.
populations
groups of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.
communities
assemblies of diff. population that live together in a defined area.
ecosystem
collection of all organisms in a space, with nonliving and physical environment
3 steps of ecology research
observing, experimenting, modeling
how much sun do living things use?
3%
some types of organisms rely on inorganic chemical compounds energy. for example...
mineral water from underground hot springs, or underground vents
autotrophs
capture sunlight/chemical energy for food production
producers
autotrophs
algae
main autotroph in upper ocean, and freshwater ecosystems
chemosynthesis
when plants use chemical energy to produce energy.
heterotrophs
organisms that need other organisms for food and energy
consumers
heterotrophs
detrivores
mites, earthworms, snails, crabs. They feed on plant/animal remains
energy flows through an ecosystem in how many directions?
one
food web
links all food chains in an ecosystem together
trophic level
each step in a food chain. producers, consumers, consumers, consumers...
ecological pyramid
a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter combined within each trophic level of the food web
3 ecological pyramid types
energy, biomass, numbers
only WHAT % of available energy in a trophic level is used by the next level
10%
biomass
living tissue amount in a given trophic level
each layer of the ecological pyramid supports...
10% less than the last layer
matter, unlike energy, is ...what?
recycled between ecosystems
biogeochemical cycles
connects biological, geological, and chemical aspects of the biosphere
biological systems don't use matter, they...what?
transform and reuse it
transpiration
water evaporating from leaves
nutrients
the body's building blocks
carbon cycle (4 parts)
biological, biochemical, mixed biochemical, human activity
nitrogen fixation
bacteria which live in the soil and on the roots of legumes which convert nitrogen into ammonia
dentrification
soil bacteria releases into atmosphere, soil bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas
phosphorus
forms parts of DNA/RNA and doesn't enter atmosphere. it's mostly in rock/soil minerals as inorganic phosphate
plants draw up phosphate and bind it into...
organic compounds
primary productivity
rate at which organic matter is created by producers
limiting nutrient
when an ecosystem is limited by a single nutrient that is scarce/cycles slowly
algal bloom
when an aquatic ecosystem receives a large input of a limiting nutrient, resulting in the immediate increase of algae