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APUSH Chapter 18: American Society in the Industrial Age

Terms in this set (26)

Middle Class
Family Life
-stiff and prudish
-fewer children
-based on tangible goods
Working Conditions
-women remained at home with children
-men worked in shops and offices
o Comfortable money wise in general
o About ¼ of families employed at least one servant.
Attitudes
-lost moral fervor
-gained substantiality
-fervor of individuals for success
-employed new self-control and regularity
Working Class
Family Life
-Home life varied due to
o Health
o Intelligence
o Wife's ability as a homemaker
o Degree of family's commitment to middle class values
o Luck
-incomes varied due to
o Steadiness of employment
o Number of family members employed
Working Conditions
-hours decreasing slowly to less than 10 by 1880
-machinery had bad effects of attitude
o Monotonous jobs
o Undermined pride and bargaining power
o Worker seemed less important
o Faster and more dangerous pace of work
-personal contact between employer and worker was limited
-relations became ruthless and competitive
-few workers could become independent manufacturers
-accentuated business cycle with unreliable fields of work
Attitudes
-considerable dissatisfaction
o Poverty
o Rising aspiration and future disappointment
-wanted to believe in classless society
o No one had to remain a hired laborer
-gap between rich and ordinary was widening
Farmers
Family Life
-not much changed
-whole family contributed to the farm
Working Conditions
-difficult
-prices declining, dealt with economic slumps well by utilizing less expensive pursuits
Attitudes
-decreased importance in society
-became discouraged
-viewed with contempt. "Hayseeds"
-Push Factors
Cheap wheat from Russia, U.S., and other parts of the world poured into Europe with new cheaper transportation and undermined livelihood of many European farmers
Spreading industrial revolution and increased use of farm machinery led to collapse of peasant economy of central and southern Europe—loss of self-sufficiency and fragmentation of landholdings
Political and religious persecutions
Hope of economic betterment
-Pull Factors
Ease of Atlantic crossing
• safe and speedy
• perfection of the steamship
• low prices due to competition between lines
Idealistic views of the United States as a land of opportunity for all.
Old Immigration:
1830 to 1860:
Mostly Irish and German
Irish: no self rule and potato famine
Germans: liberals and intellectuals after revolution of 1848

1860 to 1890:
still mainly Northern Europeans (England, Germany, Scandinavia)
many came to settle the frontier near growing railroads

-Many Americans welcomed these immigrants as an asset to America as they were:
workers for factories, mines, railroads
farmers for the west
consumers for agricultural and industrial products
men with special abilities and talents
additional manpower for military
easily assimilated in American society

Early opposition to immigration:
The "Know Nothings" were an anti-immigration group
they believed that:
• immigrants took American jobs
• they did NOT assimilate into society
• they were Catholic (which they didn't approve of)

New Immigration:
1890 to 1914
came in much larger numbers than earlier immigrants
mostly southern and eastern Europeans: Italy, Greece, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Poland
• Italians and Greeks fled poverty
• Austrians and Russians fled heavy taxation and military service
• Jews fled persecution
Settled mainly in cities near factories NOT frontier
had more difficulty assimilating as they were different from Americans

-Reasons to Oppose the New Immigrants:
with the frontier closed, there was no land for them
new immigrants competed for jobs that should belong to Americans
they were harder to "Americanize" and had little education
they created ghettos and felt no need to learn American ways
they were "inferior" to Old Immigrants(theory of Nordic Supremacy)

-In defense of the New Immigrants:
they DID assimilate as well as the older groups
Irish and Germans had retained old ways and were not educated
farmers and Irish also contributed to overcrowding in cities
they provided more workers for expanding American industry
increased the market for American goods
Nordic Supremacy was proved false by science