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55 terms

The Elements of Poetry

STUDY
PLAY
poetic techniques
tools of the poet's trade
figurative language
a use of language that gives more meaning a depth; not literal
overlapping meanings
definitions can sometimes overlap
denotation
the dictionary meaning of a word
connotation
a second meaning; the implied or associative meaning of a word
imagery
representation of sensory experiences through language; words that create mental images in the mind of the reader
alliteration
use of the same consonant at the beginning of each stressed syllable in a line of verse
assonance
the repetition of similar vowels in the stressed syllables of successive words
symbol
something visible that by association or convention represents something else that is invisible; something that stands for more than what it is
allusion
a reference to another work of literature, person, or event
hyperbole
a figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor
simile
a figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with 'like' or 'as')
metaphor
a comparison between two unlike objects without using like or as
onomatopoeia
words that sound like what they mean
oxymoron
conjoining contradictory terms (as in 'deafening silence')
personification
a figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes
sentimentality
excessive emotions
understatement
the opposite of exaggeration: It is a technique for developing irony and/or humor where one writes or says less than intended.
musical devices
variations of emphasis and sound qualities to give musical flow to words
meter
a way of placing emphasis on words and symbols that create a repetive rhythm
rhyme
similar in sound
rhythm
recurring at regular intervals
iamb
a metrical unit with unstressed-stressed syllables
trochee
a metrical unit with stressed-stressed-unstressed syllables
anapest
metrical unit with unstressed-unstressed-stressed syllables
metrical foot
a group of 2 or 3 syllables forming the basic unit of poetic rhythm noun
tone
the emotional coloring of a piece of work
idiom
an expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the meanings of the words that make it up
irony
witty language used to convey insults or scorn
Ex. "he used sarcasm to upset his opponent"; "irony is wasted on the stupid"; "Satire is a sort of glass, wherein beholders do generally discover everybody's face but their own"--
euphemism
substitution of an inoffensive term for one that is offensive
analogy
drawing a comparison in order to show a similarity in some respect
Ex. "the operation of a computer presents and interesting analogy to the working of the brain"; "the models show by analogy how matter is built up"
foreshadowing
the use of hints and clues to suggest what will happen later in a plot
flashback
scene that interrupts the normal chronological sequence of events in a story to depict something that happened at an earlier time
verbal irony
a figure of speech in which what is said is the opposite of what is meant
situational irony
occurs when the outcome of a work is unexpected, or events turn out to be the opposite from what one had expected
dramatic irony
when a reader is aware of something that a character isn't
subtleties
not loud, bright, noticeable or obvious in any way
incongruities
inconsistencies; things that don't seem to go together
iambic pentameter
a line of poet verse consisting of ten syllables group into five iamb.
quatrain
a four line stanza; a grouping of four lines
sestet
a six line stanza; a grouping of six lines
octave
a eight line stanza; a grouping of eight lines
rhyme scheme
a regular pattern of rhyming words in a poem
sonnet
a verse form consisting of 14 lines with a fixed rhyme scheme
couplet
a two line stanza
metonymy
substituting the name of an attribute or feature for the name of the thing itself (as in 'they counted heads')
synecdoche
a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part
conceit
(in poetry) extravagant metaphor; a fanciful, particularly clever extended metaphor
internal rhyme
rhyme within a line
slant rhyme
rhyme in which the vowel sounds are nearly, but not exactly the same (i.e. the words "stress" and "kiss"); sometimes called half-rhyme, near rhyme, or partial rhyme
end rhyme
rhyme that occurs at the end of two or more lines of poetry
ballad
a narrative song with a recurrent refrain
elegy
a mournful poem, esp. one lamenting the dead
ode
a poem usually addressed to a particular person, object or event that has stimulated deep and noble feelings in the poet
parallelism
phrases or sentences of a similar construction/meaning placed side by side, balancing each other