46 terms

Selling CHP 4

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Two-way communication process
-the process begins when the sender (seller), either the salesperson or the customer, wants to communicate some thoughts or ideas
-because the receiver(buyer) cannot read the sender's mind, the sender must translate these ideas into words
Encoding
-the translation of thoughts into words
-then the receiver must decode the message and try to understand what the sender intended to communicate
Decoding
-involves interpreting the meaning of the received message
Feedback
-consider a salesperson who is describing a complex product to a customer; at one point, a perplexed look flits across the customer's face; the salesperson receives this nonverbal message and asks the customer what part of the presentation needs further explanation; this feedback from the customer's expression tells the salesperson that the message is not being received; the customer then sends verbal messages to the salesperson in the form of questions concerning the operation and benefits of the product
Communication breakdown
-can be caused by encoding and decoding problems and the environment in which the communications occur
ex: the salesperson assumes price is important to the customer and the customer assumes wrongly that the salesperson's company only makes low-price, low-performance copiers

-communication can also be inhibited by the environment in which the communication process occurs
ex: noise
Noise
-sounds unrelated to messages being exchanged by the salesperson and the customer, such as ringing telephones or other conversations nearby
-to improve communication, the salesperson should attempt to minimize noises in the environment by closing a door to the room or suggesting that the meeting move to a quieter place
Other environmental issues
-people communicate most effectively when they are physically comfortable
-if the room is too hot or too cold, the salesperson should suggest changing the temperature or moving to another room
-overall, effective communication cannot occur without the proper environment
-buyers do not always follow this communication model perfectly; some buyers and sellers have agendas that do not always result in honest, straightforward attempts to reveal truth
-rather, they may use communication as a tool to mask their true motives and intentions
Persuading
-the process by which the salesperson attempts to convince other people (buyers) to change their attitudes or behaviors regarding an issue while understanding that the other person is free to accept or reject the idea
Choice of words
-use short words and phrases to demonstrate strength and force (like "accelerated" and "intervened") or to provide charm and grace (like "crystal clear" and "crisp copies")
-avoid trite words such as "nice" and "good" and phrases that make you sound like an overeager salesperson such as "a great deal, I guarantee you will..." and "No problem!"
-avoid using off-color language, slang, and foul language
-every salesperson should be able to draw on a set of words to best help present the features of a product or service; the words might form a simile like "this battery backup is like a spare tire" or a metaphor "this machine is a real workhorse" or a phrase drawing on sensory appeal like "smooth as silk"
-to find the best way to use words, it often helps to listen to the way your customer talks
-be careful about using words that have become so common in business conversations as to be almost meaningless; words like "core competence, value added, mission-critical" avoid them b/c you come off as phony
-Words have different meanings in different cultures and even in different subcultures of the US
Voice characteristics
-includes rate of speech, loudness, inflection, and articulation
-a salesperson's delivery of words affects how the customer will understand and evaluate his or her presentation
-poor voice and speech habits make it difficult for customers to understand a salesperson's message
Rate of speech
-customers tend to question the expertise of salespeople who talk much slower or faster than the normal rate of 140 words per minute; salespeople should vary their rate of speech depending on the nature of the message and the environment in which the communication occurs
-simple messages can be delivered at faster rates, and more difficult concepts should be presented at slower rates
Loudness
-should be tailored to the communication situation
-to avoid monotony, salespeople should learn to vary the loudness of their speech
-loudness can also be used to emphasize certain parts of the sales presentation, indicating to the customer that these parts are more important
Inflection
-the tone or pitch of speech
-at the end of a sentence the tone should drop, indicating the completion of a thought
-when the tone goes up at the end of a sentence, listeners often sense uncertainty in the speaker
-use inflection to reduce monotony
-if you speak with enthusiasm it will help your customer connect emotionally
-don't forget to be yourself, the buyer can be turned off if you're obviously just trying to copy the successful communication traits of someone else
Articulation
-refers to the production of recognizable sounds
-articulation is best when the speaker opens his or her mouth properly; then the movements of the lips and tongue are unimpeded
-when the lips are too close together the enunciation of the certain vowels and consonants suffers
Stories
-Stories can make points most effectively and be entertaining
-great stories often include conflicts, trials, and crises and help the listener think through choices and outcomes of those decisions
-you cannot assume customers are familiar with trade jargon, and thus they need to check with their customers continually to determine whether they are interpreting sales messages and stories properly
Word picture
-a graphic or vivid story designed to help the buyer easily visualize a point
-to use a word picture effectively, the salesperson needs to paint as accurate and reliable a picture as possible
-salespeople use this to help customers understand the benefits or features of a product
Analogy
-effective stories often include an analogy which is when the speaker attempts to draw a parallel between one thing and another
Keep Open Lines of communication
-as a salesperson you must always keep the lines of verbal communication with the buyer open
-you must contact buyers often, keep them fully informed, and make sure you are accessible for their contact
Active Listening
-Inexperienced salespeople often go into a selling situation thinking they have to out-talk the prospect
-They are enthusiastic about their product and company, and they want to tell the prospect all they know; however, salespeople who monopolize conversations cannot find out what customers need
80-20 Rule
-salespeople should listen 80 percent of the time and talk no more than 20 percent of the time
-studies have shown that salespeople with outstanding communication skills actually support the value creation process
Speaking-listening differential
-people can speak at a rate of only 120 to 160 words per minute, but they can listen to more than 800 words per minute
-because of this, salespeople often become lazy listeners
-they do not pay attention and often remember only 50 percent of what is said immediately after they hear it
3 levels of listening
-Hearing
-Passive Listening
-Active Listening
Active Listening
-salespeople who practice active listening project themselves into the mind of the speaker and attempt to feel the way the speaker feels
-active listeners think while they listen
-they think about the conclusions toward which the speaker is building, evaluate the evidence being presented, and sort out important facts from irrelevant ones
-it also means the listening attempts to draw out as much information as possible
-gestures can motivate a person to continue talking; head nodding, eye contact, saying "I see"
Suggestions for Active Listening
1) repeating information: during a sales interaction the salesperson should verify the information he or she is collecting from the customer; a useful way to verify information is to repeat, word for word, what has been said; minimizes misunderstandings
2) restating or rephrasing information: to verify a customer's intent, salespeople should restate the customer's comment in his or her own words
3) clarifying information: ask questions designed to obtain additional information
4) summarizing the conversation: mentally summarize points that have been made; at critical spots in the sales presentation, the salesperson should present his or her mentally prepared summary
5) tolerating silences: "bite your tongue" at times during a sales presentation, a customer needs time to think
6) concentrating on the ideas being communicated: salespeople should listen to the words from the customer's viewpoint instead of reacting from their own viewpoint
Body language
-words are responsible for only 40% of the information people acquire in face-to-face communication
-voice characteristics account for 10% of the message received
-50% comes from nonverbal communications
-studies have shown that the brain can actually lose its ability to understand nonverbals if face-to-face contact decreases
-one fear of over-use of social media is that people will lose their nonverbal reading skills
Body angle
-Back and forth motions indicate a positive outlook, whereas side-to-side movements suggest insecurity and doubt
-Body movements directed toward a person indicate positive regard; in contrast, leaning back or away suggests boredom, apprehension, or possibly anger
-changes in position may indicate that a customer wants to end the interview, strongly agree or disagrees with what has been said, or wants to place an order
Face
-the eyes are the most important area of the face
-the pupils of interested or excited people tend to enlarge; thus, by looking at a customer's eyes, salespeople can often determine when their presentations have made an impression
-eye position can indicate a customer's thought process
--straight ahead=passively receiving information but devoting little effort to analyze the meaning and not really concentrating
intense eye contact for more than 3 seconds generally indicates customer displeasure
staring indicates coldness, anger, or dislike
-customers look away from the salesperson while they actively consider information in the sales presentation
-eyes positioned to the left or right=the salesperson has succeeded in getting the customer involved in the presentation
-gaze to the right=customer is considering the logic and facts in the presentation, and gazing to the left suggests more intense concentration based on an emotional consideration
-eyes cast down offer the strongest signal of concentration
-when they look away for an extended period, they probably want to end the meeting
-face reddening=embarrassment, something is wrong, anger
-tension and anger show in tightness around the cheeks, jawline, or neck
Arms
-a key factor in interpreting arm movements is intensity
-customers will use more arm movement when they are conveying an opinion
-broader and more vigorous movement indicates the customer is more emphatic about the point being communicated verbally
-always remember cultural differences
Hands
-hand gestures are very expressive
-open and relaxed hands=positive signal
-self-touching gestures typically indicate tension
-involuntary gestures like tightening of the fist are good indicators of true feelings
-differ from cultures
Legs
-uncrossed legs in an open position=cooperation, confidence, and friendly interest
-legs crossed away from a salesperson suggest that the sales call is not going well
-crossing your feet and showing bottoms of shoes in japan=insulting
Body Language Patterns
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Using Body Language
-During a 30 min sales call around 800 nonverbal signals are exchanged
-Cooperative cues indicate to customers that the salesperson sincerely wants to help them satisfy their needs
-the most effective gestures are natural ones, not those you are forcing yourself to perform
Mirroring
-where one person copies the nonverbals of another
-in this case, salespeople should use their nonverbals carefully hoping that the buyer will mirror their positive and open nonverbals
Facial muscles
-often involuntary, especially during stressful situations
-lips tense, foreheads wrinkle, and eyes glare without salespeople realizing they are disclosing their feelings to a customer
-salespeople can only control facial reactions with practice
-need to exercise face muscles
Eye contact
-varies from situation to situation
-direct eye contact when talking in front of a group to indicate sincerity, credibility, and truthworthiness
-glancing from face to face rapidly or staring at a wall has the opposite effect
Gestures and Handshaking
-by exposing the palm of your hand, you indicate openness and receptivity
-slicing hand movements and pointing a finger are very strong signals and should be used to reinforce only the most important points; pointing a finger should be avoided
-gestures should be used to drive home a point
-hand gestures at the height of your naval come across as truthful
-chest level suggests she has real passion
-above head are great passion
-do not automatically go to shake their hand especially if they are seated
-it should be the prospect's choice
-women should shake hands in the same manner men do
Posture and Body movement
-shuffling feet gives an impression of a lack of self confidence and self discipline
-overly erect posture=rigid
Intimate zone
-reserved primarily for a person's closest relationships
personal zone
-for close friends and those who share special interests
social zone
-business transactions and other impersonal relationships
-salespeople should begin at this zone
public zone
-speeches, teachers in classrooms
Contact vs. noncontact
-contact people see noncontact people as cold and unfriendly
-noncontact people see contact people as overly friendly and obtrusive
Appearance
1) getting customers to notice you in a positive way
2) getting customers to trust you

1) Consider the Geography: temperature and local cultural norms
2) Consider your Customers: their appearance and their expectations for your appearance
3) Consider your Corporate Culture: Norms for your industry
4) Consider your Aspirations: top levels of your organizations and dress one level above your position
5) Consider your own Personal Style: halo effect: the tendency to generalize one positive aspect of your behavior to all aspects of your behavior ..also be reasonable
Response time
-the time between sending a message and getting a response to it
Social networking
-the use of Web tools that allow users to share content, interact, and develop communities around similar interests
Cultural differences
-use common English words
-use words that do not have multiple meanings
-avoid slang expressions peculiar to American culture
-Use rules of grammar more strictly
-Use action-specific verbs
-Never use vulgar expressions
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