1) A hallux valgus deformity is associated with bone growth on:
a. The first toe
2) The primary survey refers to the inspection and evaluation given after the ABC's have been assessed.
3) Which muscle passes behind the medial malleolus, is found in the deep posterior compartment of the lower leg, and is responsible for foot supination?
b. Tibialis posterior
4) A common foot condition with an onset of pain in the arch region that is relieved by becoming non weight-bearing and presents with extreme point tenderness at the plantar surface of the calcaneus may be indicative of
a. Plantar fasciitis
5) During running, both feet are off the surface at one time.
6)The lateral compartment of the leg comprises what muscles?
Peronues brevis, peroneus longus
7) Which of the following should be noted in the subjective portion of a foot, ankle, or lower leg injury evaluation?
a. A change in footwear b. A change in running surface/terrain c. An increase in running distance d.All of the above
8) When one is controlling external bleeding, what is the sequence of events?
d. Apply direct pressure over the wound and elevate the body part
9) Pain on the anterior medial heel that occurs with the first steps in the morning is indicative of:
b. Plantar fasciitis
10) The single most important step that can be taken to avoid heat illness is to:
a. Be certain athletes are properly hydrated
11) Excessive pronation can play a role in which of the following injuries?
a. Achilles tendinopathy b. Plantar fasciitis c. Medial tibial stress syndrome d. a and b e. All of the above
12)The difference between a second degree and third degree ankle sprain is the:
d.Decreased amount of pain associated with a third-degree sprain
13) Which of the following conditions could lead to a stress fracture in the bones of the foot or lower leg?
a. Change in running surface b. Female athlete triad c. Overuse d. Inappropriate footwear e. All of the above
14) A condition that occurs when the tissue fluid pressure has increased because of the confines of the fascia and/or bone resulting in compression of the muscles, nerves, and blood vessels is called:
c. Compartment syndrome
15) Treatment of a foot, ankle, and lower leg injury typically involves weight bearing as soon as tolerated with a minimum of 10⁰ dorsiflexion and 20⁰ of plantar flexion when the knee is fully extended.
16) A positive anterior drawer test in the ankle indicates damage to which ligament?
a. Anterior talofibular
17) According to the "10% rule", research demonstrates that which of the following variables of training should be increased by only 10% per week to minimize likelihood of injury?
a. Duration b. Intensity c. Frequency d.Any one of the above
18) Medial tibial stress syndrome, also known as shin splints, is usually attributed to an inflammation of the anterior tibialis muscle and extensor muscles of the toes.
19) Because the talus is wider posteriorly than anteriorly, the most stable position of the ankle is with the foot in plantarflexion. b. False
20) A positive Tinel's sign will demonstrate which of the following?
Tingling, pain, parasthesia along the posterior tibial nerve nerve.
21) A Jones fracture is an avulsion fracture occurring at:
c. The base of the 5th metatarsal
22) Which of the following is not a sign of anterior compartment syndrome?
b. Weakness in the gastrocnemius
23) Which of the following is NOT one of the arches of the foot?
c. Tarsal arch
24) The lateral malleolus is part of the:
25) During a normal gait pattern, the foot is supinated during which part of the stance phase?
a. Initial contact b. Toe off d. a and b
26) Proper footwear can prevent some of the common ankle injuries.
27) A bunion on the first metatarsal is often associated with a depressed or flattened transverse arch and a pronated foot.
28) Which of the following structures is NOT located posterior to the medial malleolus?
e. Peroneus Brevis tendon
29) If someone is unconscious with intact breathing and pulse, they should be placed in the recovery position to ensure the prevention of the tongue falling back and blocking the airway.
30) A tight heel chord (Achilles tendon) predisposes an individual to which of the following injuries?
a. Plantar fasciitis b. Anterior shin splints c. Medial tibial stress syndrome d. Inversion ankle sprain e. All of the above
31) Normal range of motion for the ankle is 20 degrees of eversion and 40 degrees of inversion.
32) What is the first step you should take when caring for all minor skin wounds?
b. Apply gloves prior to touching the wound
33) The distal end of the tibia becomes enlarged, rounded, and projecting as it approaches the ankle, thus forming the lateral malleolus.
34) Which of the following presents the correct progression of the ankle taping procedure learned in lab:
d. stirrup strips, horse shoe strips, heel-lock strips
35) It is important to flex the knee while the foot is dorsiflexed when stretching the heel chord to isolate which muscle?
36) Which of the following special tests reveals injury to the deltoid ligament by presenting pain and increased laxity?
b. Talar Tilt Eversion
37) Athletes who have excessive pronation and/or pes planus feet have a higher incidence of:
c. Eversion ankle sprains
38) The stance phase of running is approximately 1/3 of the gait cycle.
39) Which of the following is NOT included in the treatment of acute or exertional compartment syndrome?
40) Two soccer players kick each other great toe to great toe. One player has immediate pain and disability. She has exquisite bony point tenderness over medial aspect of the foot, proximal to the metatarsals. Which of the following conditions would you suspect?
c. navicular fracture
41) Which of the following is NOT true regarding Achilles tendinopathies?
a. Occurs more often in women
42) When testing joint stability using special tests, one must have the patient relax and compare bilaterally.
43) Which of the following represents the correct combination of actions in talocrural and subtalar pronation?
c. Abduction, dorsiflexion, and eversion
44) Third degree inversion ankle sprains are often associated with (the):
d. Total rupture of lateral ligaments
45) The most commonly sprained ligament in the foot, ankle, & lower leg is the:
b. Anterior talofibular
46) During the gait cycle, which of the following has the potential to lead to inefficient foot function and potential dysfunction?
a. Too much supination b. Too much pronation c. Too little supination d. Too little pronation e. All of the above
47) Plantar fasciitis is rarely seen in distance runners but is very common in sprinters.
48) Athletes who have biomechanical foot problems are more prone to stress fractures of the lower leg.
49) The normal range of motion for dorsiflexion of the ankle is:
b. 10 degrees
50) Appropriate progression for the rehabilitation of ankle injuries involves:
b. Restore ROM → isometric exercise → isotonic exercise → functional exercise
51) A tight heel cord forces the foot into eversion, making it more susceptible to a lateral ankle sprain.
52) Which anatomical structure is involved in a Turf Toe injury?
b. 1st metatarsalphalangeal joint
53) Which of the following treatment options for a hallux valgus deformity should be considered as a last resort?
54) Muscles that produce supination are the:
b. Tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus
55) The fallen medial longitudinal arch is associated with (a):
b. Pes planus
56) A general term to describe pain in the ball of the foot is:
57) A condition in which nerves are entrapped between the metatarsal heads producing swelling with radiating pain distally is called:
a. Morton's neuroma
58) What condition can occur with a Jones Fracture due to its poor blood supply?
c. Non union
59) Which of the following structures is NOT a tarsal bone?
60) The extensor hallucis longus assists in inversion and dorsiflexion.
61) The purpose of the most common ankle taping procedure (learned in lab) is to resist eversion and plantar flexion.
62) Treatment of Morton's neuroma involves placing a teardrop shaped pad between the heads of the third and fourth metatarsals.
63) What motions occur at the subtalar joint?
d. Inversion and eversion
64) A general term applied to a variety of overuse leg conditions that seasonally plague many athletes is called:
c. Shin splints
65) Neuromuscular control of the ankle specifically uses exercises to prevent ankle injuries.
66) Which of the following is NOT an example of a functional test that can be performed by an athlete after an ankle injury?
d. Walk on lateral borders of feet
67) Eversion ankle sprains are associated with which of the following?
b. Tearing of the deltoid ligament
68) Which of the following is the most effective treatment for tendinopathies? a. Rest
69) The best way to prevent an ankle injury is through strengthening and bracing.
70) The Gastrocnemius and Soleus muscles _________________ the ankle.
71) If not properly evaluated, a compartment syndrome can lead to permanent disability due to the pressure on nerves and blood vessels.
72) Poorly applied tape does more harm than good.
73) Achilles tendonitis is usually the result of repetitive stress and strain which causes constant inflammation.
74) Eversion ankle sprains are less common than inversion ankle sprains.
75) Tendonitis of the peroneal tendons will generate pain just posterior to the medial malleolus.