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Testis, or testicles
primary male sex organs, paired, oval-shaped, and enclosed in a sac called the scrotum
the microscopic male germ cell, which, when united with the ovum, produces a zygote that with subsequent development becomes an embryo
the principal male sex hormone. Its chief function is to stimulate the development of the male reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics such as facial hair
approximately 900 coiled tubes within the testes in which spermatogenesis occurs
coiled duct atop each of the testes that provides for storage, transit, and maturation of spermatazoa; continuous with the vas deferens
vas deferens, ductus deferens, or seminal duct
duct carrying the sperm from the epididymis to the urethra. The spermatic cord encloses each vas deferens with nerves, lymphatics, arteries, and veins. The urethra also connects with the urinary bladder and carries urine outside the body. A circular muscle constricts during intercourse to prevent urination
two main glands located at the base of the bladder that open into the vas deferens. The glands secrete a thick fluid, which forms part of the semen
encircles the upper end of the urethra. The prostate gland secretes a fluid that aids in the movement of the sperm and ejaculation.
sac suspended on both sides of and just behind the penis. The testes are enclosed in the scrotum
erectile dysfunction (ED)
the inability of the male to attain or maintain an erection sufficient to perform sexual intercourse (formerly called incontinence)
a tightness of the prepuce that prevents its retraction over the glans penis; it may be congenital or a result of balanitis. Circumcision is the usual treatment
twisting of the spermatic cord causing decreased blood flow to the testis; occurs most often during puberty and often presents with a sudden onset of severe testicular or scrotal pain. Because of lack of blood flow to the testis, it is often considered a surgical emergency
excision of a duct (partial excision of the vas deferens bilaterally, resulting in male sterilization
creation of artificial openings between ducts (the severed ends of the vas deferens are reconnected in an attempt to restore fertility in men who have had a vasectomy)
radical prostatectomy (RP)
excision of the prostate gland with its capsule, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, and sometimes pelvic lymph nodes; performed by a retropubic or perineal approach, or laparoscopically; used to treat prostate cancer
excision of the prostate gland through an abdominal incision made above the pubic bone and through an incision in the bladder; used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer
transurethral incision of the prostate gland (TUIP)
a surgical procedure that widens the urethra by making a few small incisions in the bladder neck and prostate gland.
transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT)
a treatment that eliminates excess tissue present in benign prostatic hyperplasia by using heat generated by microwave
transurethral resection of the prostate gland (TURP)
surgical removal of pieces of the prostate gland tissue by using a resectoscope inserted through the urethra. The capsule is left intact; usually performed when the enlarged prostate gland interferes with urination
Cooled ThermoTherapy Device
delivers precise microwavable energy to heat and destroy prostate tissue while a cooling mechanism protects surrounding tissue
Photoselective vaporization of the prostate gland (PVP)
uses a laser system operated through a cytoscope inserted through the urethra to the prostate gland. Overgrown prostate tissue is vaporized using heat generated by the laser
transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)
an ultrasound procedure used to diagnose prostate cancer. Sound waves are sent and received by a transducer in the form of a probe that is placed into the rectum. The sound waves are transformed into an image of the prostate gland
prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
blood test that measures the level of prostate-specific antigen in the blood. Elevated test results may indicate the presence of the prostate cancer or excess prostate tissue, as found in benign prostatic hyperplasia
microscopic observation of ejaculated semen, revealing the size, structure, and movement of sperm; used to evaluate male infertility and to determine the effectiveness of a vasectomy
digital rectal examination (DRE)
a physical examination in which the physician inserts a finger into the rectum and feels for the size and shape of the prostate gland through the rectal wall. Used to screen for BPH and cancer of the prostate. BPH usually presents as a uniform, nontender enlargement, whereas cancer usually presents as a stony hard nodule
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
a disease that affects the body's immune system, transmitted by exchange of body fluid during the sexual act, reuse of contaminated needles, or receiving contaminated blood transfusions
a sexually transmitted disease, sometimes referred to as a silent STD because many people are not aware they have the disease. Symptoms that occur when the disease becomes serious are painful urination and discharge from the penis in men and genital itching, vaginal discharge, and bleeding between menstrual periods in women. The causative agent is C. trachomatis.
sexually transmitted disease caused by Herpesvirus hominis type 2 (also called herpes simplex virus)
contagious, inflammatory sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial organism that affects the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
a type of retrovirus that causes AIDS. HIV infects T-helper cells of the immune system, allowing for opportunistic infections such as candidiasis, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, tuberculosis, and Kaposi sarcoma
human papillovirus (HPV)
a prevalent sexually transmitted disease causing benign or cancerous growths in male and female genitals (also called venereal warts)
period when secondary sex characteristics develop and the ability to reproduce sexually begins
sexually transmitted disease (STD)
diseases, such as syphilis, gonorrhea, and genital herpes, transmitted during sexual contract (also called venereal disease and sexually transmitted infection (STI))
chronic infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum, which usually is transmitted by sexual contact, may be acquired in utero, or (less often) contracted through direct contact with infected tissue. If untreated, the infection usually progresses through three clinical stages with a latent period. The initial local infection quickly becomes systemic with widespread dissemination of the bacterium
a sexually transmitted disease caused by a one-cell organism, Trichomonas. It infects the genitourinary tract. Men may be asymptomatic or may develop urethritis, an enlarged prostate gland, or epididymitis. Women have vaginal itching, dysuria, and vaginal or urethral discharge
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