Chapter 9 Metabolism

Combining glucose to make the more complex molecule of glycogen is considered _____.
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A substance is when it gains 1 or more electrons. For example, iron does this when it gains an electron.reducedWhich two of the following vitamins assist dehydrogenase enzymes and therefore play a role in transferring the hydrogens from energy-yielding compounds to oxygen in the metabolic pathways of the cell?Niacin RiboflavinA substance is ______ when it loses 1 or more electrons.oxidizedChoose the best definition of cellular respiration.Removing electrons from food molecules to obtain energyDuring glycolysis, glucose is converted to two units of _____.pyruvate_______ functions as the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide during intense aerobic exercise.NiacinA substance is when it gains 1 or more electrons. For example, iron does this when it gains an electron.The transition reaction also ______, which will eventually enter the electron transport chain.reduces NADMatch the termCellular respiration-removing electrons from food molecules to produce energy Aerobic-Making ATP in the presence of oxygen Making ATP without oxygenHow many turns of the citric acid cycle does it take to process one glucose molecule?TwoWhat are two functions of glycolysis?To provide building blocks for synthesizing other needed compounds To produce energyThe process of converting pyruvate into acetyl-CoA occurs in a process called _____.the transition reactionThe final pathway of aerobic respiration is _____.the electron transport chainWhat are other names for the citric acid cycle?Tricarboxylic acid cycle Krebs cycleWhat molecule is the final acceptor of electrons and hydrogen ions during aerobic respiration?OxygenWhich process is considered more efficient at converting the energy in glucose to energy stored as ATP?Aerobic metabolismWhat part of the cell is the electron transport chain located in?MitochondriaWhy is oxygen essential to energy production?Oxygen is the final acceptor of electrons and hydrogen ions.How do cells without mitochondria (such as red blood cells) produce ATP?Anaerobic metabolismDuring high intensity exercise muscle cells rely heavily on _________ glycolysis to produce ATP.anaerobicWhat are other names for the citric acid cycle?Match each term with its definitionCarnitine-carrier that shuttles fatty acids into the mitochondria Fatty acid oxidation-The breakdown of fatty acids to produce ATP Lipolysis-The breakdown of triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerolWhat is another name for fatty acid oxidation?Beta-oxidationDuring anaerobic glycolysis, which compounds can regenerate or accumulate?NAD+ lactateHow does carbohydrate aid fatty acid oxidation?By providing additional oxaloacetateThe breakdown of triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol is called ______.lipolysisWhat is produced when oxaloacetate production is limited and the TCA cycle activity decreases?ketone bodiesWhich yields the most ATP?Fatty acidWhich of the following is true about how carbohydrate aids in fat metabolism?Pyruvate is produced by carbohydrate metabolism, which keeps the supply of oxaloacetate high. Carbohydrate makes the entire pathway for fatty acid oxidation work better.What causes the formation of acetone, which eventually leaves the body through the lungs, causing breath with a fruity smell?KetosisWithout sufficient ______, cells cannot readily utilize glucose, resulting in rapid lipolysis and the excess production of ketone bodies.insulinClick and drag on elements in order1) Insufficient insulin production 2) Large amounts of fatty acids are released by adipose cells 3) Fatty acids flood liver and are converted to Acetyl-CoA 4) Citric acid cycle slows due to large production of ATP 5) Ketone bodies are formedWhere are the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) mainly metabolized?MusclesWhere can gluconeogenesis occur?Liver cells Kidney cellsKetoacidosis occurs as a result of ________.uncontrolled type I diabetesTypical fatty acids _____ converted into glucose.cannot beWhat organ is responsible for the preparation of the amino groups for excretion in the urine through the urea cycle?LiverWhen a person is in a state of semistarvation, the amount of glucose in the body falls. As a result, insulin production ______.decreasesProtein metabolism begins after proteins are degraded into .amino acidWhat is the name of the pathway that is used to produce glucose from amino acids?GluconeogenesisWhat are two options for acetyl-CoA once it has been produced?Form ketones Combine with oxaloacetate in the citric acid cycleThe use of amino acids as a fuel will result in the removal of the amino group from the amino acid. This amino group, which contains nitrogen, is converted to ______. This substance must be removed from the body as a buildup of it is toxic. This substance is removed from the body through urea, which is eventually excreted in urine.ammoniaClick and match, Rank the steps in the disposal of excess amino groups from amino acid metabolism in order of their occurrence.1) Amino acids undergoing transamination or deamination reactions yield free nitrogen groups 2) Urea forms in the liver 3) Urea is transported to the kidneys 4) Urea is excreted into urineCancer cells use glycolysis and produce ______.lactateIn the alcohol dehydrogenase pathway, alcohol is first converted to _______.acetaldehydeDuring _____ alcohol intake the body uses the MEOS pathway. (Select all that apply.)excessive moderateAltered glucose metabolism by cancer cells allows these cells to grow ____.rapidlyWhat is the name of the main pathway for alcohol metabolism?Alcohol dehydrogenaseEnergy (ATP) can be formed from ______.fatty acids glucose amino acidsWhat are some of the key functions of the liver?Nutrient storage Production of ketone bodies Alcohol metabolismThe MEOS pathway is used during moderate to excessive alcohol consumption to prevent the toxic effects of ______.alcohol acetaldehydeMatch the concentration of ATP/ADP with its outcomeHigh ATP concentrations-Decrease in energy-yielding reactions High ADP concentration-Increase in energy-yielding reactionsWhich of the following statements are true?Carbon skeletons from some amino acids can convert to glucose. The glycerol part of triglycerides can be used to make glucose. Carbohydrate can be used for fat synthesis.After digestion and absorption, most nutrients pass through the ______.liverThe concentration of ______ helps regulate metabolism.ATPMatch the insulin effect with the appropriate outcomeLow levels of insulin-Promote synthesis of glycogen, fat, and protein Increased insulin levels-Promote gluconeogenesis, protein breakdown, and lipolysisWhat can happen when calorie supplies are insufficient or exceed needs?The rate at which macronutrients are converted to energy changes. The type of macronutrient used to generate energy changes.During prolonged fasting, glucose-dependent cell's energy needs are met by _______.ketone bodiesLean body mass that declines below 50% (catabolism) due to fasting will result in ______.deathWhich of the following help regulate energy metabolism?Enzymes Hormones MineralsIdentify the consequences of feasting.increased insulin production fat accumulation increased burning of glucose for energyFasting and feasting ______ metabolism.both affectDuring the first few days of fasting, body protein is broken down rapidly and supplies how much of the needed glucose for the body to function?90%To prolong survival during fasting, the body goes through which of the following adaptations?Nervous system uses less glucose Reduction in energy requirements Slowing of metabolic rateMatch the insulin effect with the appropriate outcome.Low levels of insulin- promote gluconeogenesis, protein breakdown, and lipolysis Increased insulin levels- promote synthesis of glycogen, fat, and proteinThe result of feasting is the accumulation of body ______.fatWhat is the main purpose of newborn screenings?Identify infants with genetic and metabolic disordersPeople with PKU need to avoid foods containing high amounts of _____.phenylalanineThe genetic disease which results in a reduction of the metabolism of galactose to glucose is called ________.galactosemiaThe most common forms of glycogen storage disease lead to _____.liver enlargement poor physical growthThe Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children recommends ______.screening for 35 core conditionsWhat is the genetic disorder that results in body odors and bad breath?trimethylaminuriaWhich of the following foods should someone with PKU avoid?Meats Milk EggsIn galactosemia, a buildup of galactose in the blood can lead to _____.intellectual disability bacterial infections cataractsThe genetic disease in which the liver is unable to convert glycogen to glucose is called _______.glycogen storage diseaseIn trimethylaminuria, the compound trimethylamine accumulates and is excreted in the ____.urine breath sweatThe most common forms of glycogen storage disease lead to _____.poor physical growth liver enlargement