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Anatomy & Physiology: Chapter 8

The Skeletal System
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Axial Skeleton
Forms the central supporting axis of the body; skull, auditary ossicles, hyoid bone, vertebral column and thoracic cage (ribs and sternum)
Appendicular Skeleton
Includes the bones of the upper limb and pectoral girdle along with the bones of the lower limb and pelvic girdle
206
Total number of bones in a typical adult skeleton
Sesamoid Bones
Bones that form within tendons in response to stress (i.e. patella)
Sutural (Wormian) Bones
Extra bones that develop in skull suture lines
Sternoclavicular Joint
Joint between the clavicle and the sternum
Acromioclavicular Joint
Joint between the clavicle and the scapula
Glenohumeral Joint
Joint between the scapula and the humerus (shoulder)
Acromion
Plate-like extension of the spine on the scapula; forms apex of the shoulder, articulates with the clavicle - sole point of attachment of the scapula and the upper limb to the rest of the skeleton
Coracoid Process
Process on the scapula that provides attachment for tendons of the biceps brachii and other arm muscles; shaped like a bent finger
Glenoid Cavity
Shallow socket of the scapula that articulates with the head of the humerus to form the glenohumeral joint
Trochlea
Part of the humerus that articulates with the notch of the same name in the ulna
Olecranon Fossa
Part of the humerus that holds the process of the same name on the ulna
Carpal Bones
8 total;
Proximal Row: Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrium, Pisiform
Distal Row: Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate
Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrium, Pisiform
Proximal Row of Carpal Bones
Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate
Distal Row of Carpal Bones
5 Metacarpals, 14 Phalanges
Bones of the Manus
Metacarpals
Bones of the Palm
Phalanges
Bones of the fingers and toes
Pollex
Thumb, Metacarpal 1
Interosseous Membrane
Ligament that attaches the radius to the ulna and the tibia to the fibula
Coxal Bones, Ossa Coxae, Innominate Bones
3 Names for the Hip Bones
2 Coxal Bones, Sacrum, Coccyx
4 Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
Sacroiliac Joint
Joint where the os coxae is joined to the vertebral column
Pubic Symphysis
Formed where the pubic bones are joined by a pad of fibrocartilage anteriorly
Iliac Crest
Superior crest of the hip
Acetabulum
Hip socket
Obturator Foramen
Large hole below the acetabulum
Ilium
Upper area of the hip bone
Pubis
Most anterior portion of the hip bone
Ischium
Posterior portion of the hip bone that bears weight
Femur, Tibia
2 Weight-Bearing Bones of the Leg
Fibula
Slender, lateral strut that stabilizes that ankle and does not bear any body weight
Tarsal Bones
7 Total;
Proximal Row: Calcaneous, Talus, Navicular
Distal Row: Cuboid, Medial Cuneiform, Intermediate Cuneiform, Lateral Cuneiform
5 Metatarsals, 14 Phalanges
Bones of the Foot
Hallux
Big (Great) Toe, Metatarsal 1
Absorb Stress
Purpose of foot arches
7 Cervical,12 Thoracic, 5 Lumbar, 5 Fused Sacral, 4 Fused Coccygeal
5 Vertebral Groups and # of Each
Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Pelvic
4 Vertebral Curvatures
Pelvic, Thoracic
2 Vertebral Curvatures Present at Birth
Cervical, Lumbar
2 Vertebral Curvatures Developed Over Time
Scoliosis
Abnormal lateral curvature
Kyphosis (Hunchback)
Exaggerated thoracic curvature (osteoporosis)
Lordosis (Swayback)
Exaggerated lumbar curvature (pregnancy, obesity)
Intervertebral Foramen
Notches between adjacent vertebrae that provide a passageway for nerves
Intervertebral Discs
Bind vertebrae together and absorb shock
Bifid
Forked spinous process in C2 to C6
Atlas
C1 Vertebrae; Allows for nodding of the head
Axis
C2 Vertebrae; Allows for shaking of the head
Dens (Odontoid) Process
Held in place inside the vertebral foramen of the atlas by ligaments (allows for shaking of the head)
Thoracic Vertebrae
Feature a spinous process that is pointed and angled downward
Costal Facets
Found on thoracic vertebral body and at ends of transverse processes for articulation of ribs
Lumbar Vertebrae
Feature a thick, stout body and blunt, squarish spinous process
Manubrium, Body (Gladiolus), Xiphoid Process
3 Regions of the Sternum
Xiphoid Process
Inferior end of sternum that can break and puncture the liver during improper chest compressions
True Ribs
Ribs 1 - 7; Attach directly to the sternum with hyaline cartilage
False Ribs
Ribs 8 - 12; Do not directly attach to the sternum
Floating Ribs
Ribs 11 - 12; Do not attach to the sternum at all
Paranasal Sinuses
Air-filled cavities lined by a mucous membrane that lighten the skull and act as chambers that add resonance to voice
Fossa
Shallow, broad, or elongated basin
Condyle
Rounded knob that articulates with another bone
Foramen
Hole through a bone, usually round
Frontal, Parietal (2), Temporal (2), Occipital, Sphenoid, Ethmoid
8 Cranial Bones
Maxillae (2), Palatine (2), Zygomatic (2), Lacrimal (2), Nasal (2), Inferior Nasal Conchae (2), Vomer, Mandible
14 Facial Bones
Calcaneous, Talus, Navicular
Proximal Row of Tarsal Bones
Cuboid, Medial Cuneiform, Intermediate Cuneiform, Lateral Cuneiform
Distal Row of Tarsal Bones