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Bacteriology Test 2 Study guide

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What is the morphology of staphylococcus?
round, clusters
Staphylococcus is found on____ and ____ surfaces.
skin, mucosal
True/False: Staphylococcus is a commensal organism.
True
What are the two major forms of transmission?
endogenous, exogenous
Describe the endogenous transmission of staphylococcus
invades upon epithelial damage of skin and mucosal surfaces
Describe the exogenous transmission of staphylococcus.
direct contact, fomites
Staphylococcus is resistant to what two extreme conditions?
heat, dehydration
List the 5 enzymes that contribute to the pathogenicity of staphylococcus.
catalase, coagulase, hemolysin, hyaluronidase, urease
List the 3 toxins and one additional pathogenic feature (not an enzyme) produced by staphylococcus.
exfoliative toxin, enterotoxin, toxic shock syndrome toxin, polysaccharide capsule
Which species of staphylococcus causes mastitis in cattle?
S. aureus
Streptococcus causes what 3 common diseases in humans?
toxic shock syndrome, food poisoning, strep throat
S. aureus is resistant to what type of antibiotic?
beta-lactams
What type of S. aureus is most commonly seen in horses?
MRSA
Pyoderma is seen in what species of bacteria? (use entire genus species) What is the most common symptom of pyoderma?
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, skin pustules
Just like S. aureus, there are some strands of S. pseudintermedius that are resistant to ________.
methicillin
What superficial pyoderma in the abdominal region of young dogs called? What organism causes this?
impetigo, S. pseudintermedius
What are 5 other diseases caused by S. pseudintermedius aside from impetigo and pyoderma?
otitis externa, tonsillitis, mastitis, cystitis, urolithiasis
What bacteria species is also called "Greasy Pig Disease"? (use entire genus species)
Staphylococcus hyicus
Which species of staphylococcus lives on the normal flora of human skin and is an opportunistic pathogen?
S. epidermidis
Alpha hemolysis in Streptococcus exhibits ______ clearing and looks _____.
partial, green
Beta hemolysis in Streptococcus is ____ clearing and appears _____.
complete, clear
M-protein is the most important virulence determinant in which bacteria?
Streptococcus
M-protein allows for ____ , inhibits ____ activation (antiphagocytic), and causes _______.
adherence, complement, inflammation
What virulence feature of Streptococcus physically protects the bacteria from phagocytosis?
capsule
What three enzymes are virulence factors of Streptococcus?
hemolysins, streptokinase, hyaluronidase
Are Streptococcus infections endogenous or exogenous?
both
What three exogenous modes of transmission are exhibited by Streptococcus?
direct contact, inhalation, fomites
Strep. agalactiae causes ____ in cattle.
mastitis
Where does Strep. agalactiae reside in cows?
mammary glands
Transmission of this bacteria is usually via improper milking procedures.
S. agalactiae
True or False. S. agalactiae is found in the environment.
False
Is Strep. agalactiae a contagious or environmental infection?
contagious
S. _____ and S. _____ are environmental and cause mastitis in cattle.
S. uberis, S. dysgalactiae
Mastitis is usually a ______ infection. A cow can have it without showing signs of illness.
subclinical
What are the three contagious bacteria that cause mastitis?
S. aureus, S. agalactiae, M. bovis
What are 3 environmental bacteria that cause mastitis? (there are technically 8)
S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, E. coli
What is the morphology of Streptococcus?
cocci chains
Streptococcus is classified based on the _____ portion of its cell wall.
carbohydrate
The J-5 bacterin immunization is commonly used for what disease?
environmental mastitis
What bacteria lives in the tonsils, nostrils, and vagina of healthy adult carrier pigs?
S. suis
Who is mainly affected by S. suis?
piglets
What is a zoonotic bacteria that can cause meningitis in slaughterhouse workers?
S. suis
What causes septicemia, fibrinous arthritis, meningitis, pericarditis, endocarditis, and pneumonia in piglets?
S. suis
What bacteria usually lives in the upper respiratory tract and vagina of horses?
S. zooepidemicus
Strep. zooepidemicus is the primary cause of ______ and _____ in mares.
endometritis, infertility
Strep. zooepidemicus is usually secondary to what?
respiratory virus infection
Strangles is caused by what bacteria?
S. equi
S. equi causes what common disease in young horses?
Strangles
What disease causes fever, anorexia, depression, nasal discharge and painful submandibular and pharyngeal lymphadenopathy in young horses?
Strangles
What are the two main modes of transmission for S. equi?
direct contact, fomites
Does strangles have a low or high mortality rate?
low
Bacterial ____ occurs about 1 week after S. equi infection and can live in environment for 2 months.
shedding
The formation of a S. equi abscess in an organ of the body is called _____ ______.
bastard strangles
Bastard strangles is characterized by chronic _____ _______ or sudden death due to abscess rupture into a body cavity.
weight loss
A complication of S. equi results in what disease?
guttural pouch empyema
What disease is characterized by hypersensitivity immune-mediated vasculitis? What bacteria causes this?
purpura hemorrhagica, S. equi
Pitting edema of limbs, sloughing of skin, and hemorrhages of mucosa are all symptoms of what disease?
purpura hemorrhagica
How do you diagnose S. equi?
culture
What are the 5 steps for the treatment of S. equi?
isolate horse, disinfect fomites, antibiotic therapy, antibiotic treatment, aid ruptured abscesses
What bacteria is a commensal of skin and mucous membranes in dogs and cats, and casues otitis, and septicemia following skin trauma?
S. canis
What is the main strep pathogen in humans?
S. pyogenes
What bacteria causes strep throat?
S. pyogenes
If you see a human with a rash, endocarditis, sore throath, or necrotizing fasciiatis, what bacteria may be the cause?
S. pyogenes
What is the morphology of Listeria?
diplobacillus
What bacteria is ubiquitous in nature?
listeria
What is the major pathogenic species of Listeria?
L. monocytogenes
This bacteria usually elicits disease development when it is in high numbers or when the host's CMI is compromised.
listeria
What is a facultative intracellular parasite of epithelial cells, liver cells, macrophages, neural cells, and trophoblast cells?
listeria
The main virulence factor of listeria is a ______ called _____ that lyses phagosome and vacuole membranes.
hemolysin, listeriolysin O
Listeria contains two different _____ that allow for lysis of membranes. _____ ______ creates a pseudopod that allows for the bacteria to spread around the cell.
phospholipase C, actin polymerization
What is the primary route of Listeria transmission?
ingestion
What bacteria is found in large numbers in silage and animal feed?
listeria
Ingestion of Listeria causes what two problems?
abortion, CNS diseases
Disease from Listeria is very rare and is most common in an ___________ host.
immunocompromised
"Circling disease" or "silage disease" is a CNS disease caused by what?
listeria
Meningoencephalitis of the brainstem is caused by what?
listeria
What disease causes fever, head tilt, head pressing, nystagmus, propulsive walking, and perivascular cuffing in the CNS?
circling disease
Listeria is most commonly seen in _______.
ruminants
Abortion, septicemia or encephalitis in humans are most likely infected with what?
listeria
Listeria is _____ _____ in high numbers!!!
heat tolerant
When diagnosing, Listeria is best recovered after _______ ______ of brain tissue.
cold enrichment
What is the fatality % of Listeria if untreated?
100%
There is no commercial vaccine available for the infection of what ubiquitous bacteria?
listeria
What is the morphology of Rhodococcus? What color are the colonies?
coccobacillus, pink
Where is Rhodococcus found?
soil
What is the only species of Rhodoccocus of veterinary importance?
R. equi
Rhodococcus grows well in ______ ______.
horse manure
What are the primary hosts of Rhodococcus?
foals, humans, swine
What 4 bacteria are facultative intracellular pathogens of macrophages?
R. equi, C. Pseudotuberculosis, mycobacterium, nocardia (listeria)
R. equi contains a virulence ______ and a surface protein called ____ that is essential for it's intracellular survival.
plasmid, VapA
What is the primary mode of transmission of R. equi?
inhalation
Disease caused by inhalation of contaminated dust in dry seasons that is taken up by alveolar macrophages is caused by what bacteria?
R. equi
Disease from what bacterias is only caused when the host is immunologically compromised or immature?
R. equi, listeria
What bacteria causes pyogranulomatous pneumonia (lung abscesses) in young foals and humans?
R. equi
A young foal with weight loss, osteomyelitis, joint effusion, and diarrhea is probably infected with what?
R. equi
Cervical lymphadenitis is swine is caused by what?
R. equi
If you see a radiograph of lungs with "cotton puff" lesions, what is this animal infected with?
R. equi
R. equi can be diagnosed by performing a ____ cytology or culturing a _____ sample.
TTA, BAL
Is R. equi fatal without antibiotic therapy?
yes
What vaccine is given for R. equi?
none
Antibiotics for R. equi are only helpful with the bacteria is not yet ______ because it has to prevent uptake from the _____.
intracellular, macrophage
A human with HIV or cancer who works with horses or swine and has an abscess in their lungs is probably infected with what?
R. equi
What is the morphology of Erysipelothrix?
filamentous rods
What is the primary pathogen of Erysipelothrix?
E. rhusiopathiae
What bacteria is widespread in nature and also found on mucous membranes of carrier swine and on the skin of fish?
E. rhusiopathiae
E. rhusiophatiae produces a _____ that promotes spreading and invades the ____.
hyaluronidase, bloodstream
What is the primary route of transmission of E. rhuthiopathiae?
ingestion
E. rhusiopathiae is usually acquired by ingestion of foods with ____ in them, or by direct contact with carrier ______.
fish, pigs
What disease does E. rhusiophathiae cause in young swine?
erysipelas
What causes septicemia in turkeys and poultry?
E. rhusiopathiae
A young (but not newborn) pig with septicemia, endocarditis, arthritis, and skin infarct probably has what disease?
erysipelas
If you see a pig with reddish-purple rhomboid lesions and scabs, what disease does it have?
erysipelas
What antibiotic is given to swine or turkeys with erysipelas?
penicillin
If you see a human with broken skin and swollen fingers and hands, what disease do they probably have?
erysipeloid
Erysipeloid is caused by what bacteria? Who does it affect?
E. rhusiopathiae, humans
What is the morphology of Corynebacterium?
pleomorphic rods
"Chinese character" morphology is characteristic of what bacteria?
corynebacterium
What subspecies of bacteria is a commensal of the urogenital tract of sheep and carrier cows?
C. renale
_____ and _____ are commensals of the genital mucosa of all ruminants.
C. pilosum, C. cystitidis
The C. renale group contains ____ for adherence to mucosa and ____ ____ to increase urine ammonia concentration.
pili, bacterial urease
What are the 3 predisposing factors of the C. renale group?
high protein diet, parturition, peak lactation
What 2 pathogens produce bacterial urease?
S. pseudintermedius, C. renale
The C. renale group is ____ in ruminants, sheep, and carrier cows. It is _____ in non-carrier cows.
endogenous, exogenous
What causes pyelonephritis in cattle?
C. renale
What disease is characterized by an ascending infection of the ureter and kidney, causing purulent and bloody urine?
pyelonephritis
Pyelonephritis can be diagnosed by a ____ culture and treated with large doses of ____ and putting the animal on a _____ ____ diet.
urine, penicillin, lower protein
What is the scientific disease name for "pizzle rot"? What 2 bacteria species causes this disease?
ulcerative posthititis, C. renale, C. pilosum
Pizzle rot is usually seen in what 2 animals?
sheep, goats
If you see a sheep with ulcers and scabs around the prepuce area, what disease (formal name) is probably the cause?
ulcerative posthititis
What are the two best treatment methods for pizzle rot?
clean hair around the prepuce, lower protein diet
_______ is a major virulence feature of C. Pseudotuberculosis.
phospholipase D
Phospholipases are promote spread of bacteria in the host. What 3 bacteria produce phospholipases?
listeria, C. Pseudotuberculosis, C. perfringens-type A
C. pseudotuberculosis can be transmitted by direct contact with ____ or ____, or by mechanical transmission from ____.
pus, fomites, insects
Caseous lymphadenitis is caused by what bacteria?
C. Pseudotuberculosis
If you see a sheep or goat with lumpy skin from subcutaneous abscesses of the superficial lymph nodes, it probably has what disease?
caseous lymphadenitis
Caseous lymphadenitis can develop into a ____ disease and cause abscesses in the lung, liver, and kidney.
visceral
By using good shearing practices like avoiding injury and cleaning the shears, you are avoiding what 2 diseases?
caseous lymphadenitis, malignant edema
C. pseudotuberculosis causes what disease in horses?
ulcerative lymphangitis
A horse with a chronic infection of the superficial lymphatics, cellulitis, and draining lesions probably has what disease?
ulcerative lymphangitis
In terms of diseases caused by C. pseudotuberculosis, antibiotic therapy can effectively treat _____ _____, but not _____ _____.
ulcerative lymphangitis, caseous lymphadenitis
What bacteria are acid fast (pink) because of the lipids in their cell wall (which also provide a defense mechanism against the hosts radicals)?
mycobacterium
Granuloma formation is a main characteristic of what 2 bacteria?
mycobacterium, nocardia
What are the two agents of tuberculosis in animals?
M. bovis, M. tuberculosis
What 3 bacteria contain a catalase enzyme to evade the host's immune response?
staphylococcus, mycobacterium, nocardia
Mycobacteria live in the necrotic center of a _____ or intracellularly in ______.
granuloma, macrophages
What is formed when T cells, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells surround macrophages that are trying to kill bacteria but can't?
granuloma
The National Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication Program is trying to eliminate what organism?
M. bovis
What are the 2 primary modes of transmission of M. bovis?
inhalation, ingestion
Crowding/enclosed conditions aid the transmission of what bacteria?
M. bovis
A cow with weight loss, lung disease, pulmonary node enlargement, moist cough, and dyspnea is probably infected with what?
M. bovis
What is the first test that must be performed to diagnose M. bovis in cattle?
caudal fold test
If swelling from 1st test occurs, what test must be done to confirm M. bovis infection in cattle?
comparative cervical test
The comparative cervical test is positive if the reaction is to _____ and negative if the reaction is to ______.
M. bovis, M. avium
What antibiotics are given to treat M. bovis?
none
What vaccine is given for M. bovis?
none
What are the 2 current threats of M. bovis to US herds of cattle?
deer, imported cattle
What three animals are very susceptible to M. bovis?
cats, swine, humans
A rural cat with progressive weight loss and intestinal infections probably has what bacterial infection?
M. bovis
Dogs and cats with M. bovis or M. tuberculosis can be treated with what?
Anti-TB drugs
M. bovis causes ____ disease in sheep, goats, dogs, deer, primates, and humans.
pulmonary
What two animals are the most resistant to M. bovis?
horses, dogs
Like cats, pigs infected with M. bovis usually develop ____ disease.
GI
Who is the reservoir for M. tuberculosis?
humans
Dogs and cats can get _____ from their owner, resulting in pulmonary infection, but not the other way around!!
M. tuberculosis
What bacterial species is ubiquitous in nature and is found in high number in bird feces?
MAC
What is a major interference in livestock TB skin testing?
MAC
What is the mode of transmission of MAC?
ingestion
What animals are resistant to MAC?
sheep, goats, horses
What 2 bacteria only cause disease in high numbers or in immunocompromised animals?
listeria, MAC
MAC mostly affects what two species?
birds, swine
If you come across a bird with progressive weight loss, weakness and death, what are they probably infected with?
MAC
What causes enlargement of lymph nodes of head and neck in young pigs?
MAC
A human with AIDS who has developed GI disease and diarrhea might be infected with what?
MAC
MAC infection in dogs and cats usually results in weight loss, anorexia, fever, and ____ disease.
GI
Dissemination of MAC (and other mycobacterium species) usually results in _____ in lymph nodes and other organs of the body.
granulomas
What test is done to diagnose MAC in cattle and swine?
comparative cervical skin test
What vaccine is given for MAC?
none
What is the causative agent of Johne's disease of ruminants?
MAP
What does MAP stand for?
mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis
MAP is very hard to culture because it is so ____ ____.
slow growing
How is MAP transmitted?
fecal-oral spread
What pathogen elicits an inflammatory response that thickens the intestine and causes a loss of absorptive function?
MAP
What is ingested by macrophages in the Peyer's Patches of the ileum, where they multiply and spread?
MAP
You see an emaciated cow with reduced milk production and diarrhea, but seems to be eating normally. What disease do they have? What causes this disease?
Johne's disease, MAP
MAP infection occurs in the ____ period but signs rarely develop before ___ years of age.
perinatal, 2
The most sensitive diagnostic test of MAP is a DNA based ____ test.
PCR
By avoiding manure contamination of water and feed, preventing newborns animals to manure exposure, and keeping a closed herd, you are helping to prevent what disease?
Johne's disease
Is participation in the USDA Johne's Disease Herd Status program mandatory?
no
What is the morphology of Actinomyces?
pleomorphic branching rods
Which bacteria looks like a fungus?
actinomyces
What bacteria is a commensal of the oropharynx and is an opportunistic infection of the oral mucous membranes?
actinomyces
What is a commensal in the mouths of cattle that cause "Lumpy Jaw"?
A. bovis
What bacterial infection is characterized by granulomatous osteomyelitis of the face and jaw, fistulas, mastication problems, and tooth loss?
A. bovis
How is A. bovis transmitted?
not contagious
What bacteria in horses causes "poll evil" and "fistulous withers" with hard yellow white granules in the exudate?
A. bovis
By not feeding course stemmy hay to cows and horses, you are preventing disease of what bacteria?
A. bovis
What antibiotic is given for treatment of A. bovis?
penicillin
What is present in the oral mucosa of dogs and humans and causes periodontal disease?
A. viscosus
What strain of actinomyces causes localized abscess of wounds, pneumonia, pleuritis, and arthritis in dogs?
A. hordevulnaris
What is the morphology of Nocardia?
rod with branching aerial hyphae
What two bacteria are acid fast?
mycobacterium, nocardia
What are the 2 main modes of transmission of Nocardia?
contamination of wounds, inhalation
What is the only species of Nocardia of veterinary significance?
N. asteroides
What are the 3 disease forms of N. asteroides?
localized skin form, thoracic form, septicemic form
In dogs and cats, what causes localized subcutaneous lesions (mycetoma) and sometimes cough?
N. asteroides
In humans, N. asteroides causes ______ and _____ lesions.
pulmonary, subcutaneous
N. asteroides can be diagnosed by a cytology and gram stain of the lesions, showing the _____ _____, characteristic of this bacteria.
branching hyphae
What is the morphology of Dermatophilus congolensis?
branching filamentous
What bacteria is characterized by its "railroad track" morphology (zoospores)?
D. congolensis
What is the primary source of infection of D. congolensis?
carrier animals
You see an animal during the rainy season with infected skin, matted and crusty hair, and bald patches. What is the cause of this?
D. congolensis
Streptothricosis and dermatophilosis are caused by what bacteria?
D. congolensis
Rain scald, lumpy wool, and strawberry foot rot, are all infections by what?
D. congolensis
D. congolensis can be treated by disposing of the _____ and using a iodine-based _____.
crusts, shampoo
What is the morphology of Clostridium?
large anaerobic spore-forming rods
Clostridium diseases are ____ based.
toxin
What does Clostridium produce to resist disinfectants?
endospores
What causes tetanus?
Clostridium tetani
Where are C. tetani spores present?
soil
Tetanus is due to absorption of _____ by motor nerves.
neurotoxin
What is the main mode of transmission of tetanus?
contamination of wounds
Neurotoxin of tetanus and botulism binds _____ to motor nerves and blocks the release of neurotransmittiers.
irreversibly
Spastic paralysis is characteristic of what disease?
tetanus
What two animals are the most susceptible to tetanus?
horses, humans
Who is resistant to tetanus?
poultry
You see a horse with a stiff tail, erect ears, and a "saw horse" stance, what disease does it have?
tetanus
Treatment of tetanus is ____ and is therefore easier in ____ animals.
supportive, smaller
To treat tetanus and botulism, an anti-toxin must be administered to neutrialize ____ toxin. Requires time to grow new ____ terminals.
unbound, axon
What antibiotic can be used to kill vegetative tetanus toxins?
penicillin
Is there a vaccine for tetanus?
yes
What is the main mode of transmission of C. botulinum (botulism)?
ingestion
Botulism toxin is usually produced in what two sources?
decomposing animal, plant tissue
Flaccid motor paralysis is a characteristic of what disease?
botulism
Clinical signs of botulism is caused by the ____ ____, NOT the ______!!!
botulism toxin, bacterium
Death from botulism is by ____ ____.
respiratory failure
What is the most potent neurotoxin?
botulism toxin
What two animals are the most susceptible to botulism?
chickens, ducks
What animal is the least susceptible to botulism?
turkey buzzard
What are the 3 forms of botulism intoxication? (List the most common one first)
ingestion of preformed toxin, wound botulism, toxicoinfectious botulism
What is it called when foals or infants ingest botulism spores and they germinate in the gut and release toxin?
toxicoinfectious botulism
What causes "limber neck" in poultry and birds?
botulism
If you see a drowsy bird with a droopy head and eyelids and paralysis of the wings and legs, what do you think they're infected with?
botulism
When you see grain falling from the mouth of a horse while eating or its tongue is hanging out, what do you think it is infected with?
botulism
Labored breathing, muscle weakness, mydriasis (dilated pupil) and a shuffling gait in a horse are all sings of what?
botulism
What causes "shaker foal syndrome"?
botulism
If you see a foal lying down, drooling milk, with decreased tail and tongue tone, what disease do they have?
shaker foal syndrome
A "downer cow" or a cow with a staggering gait, weakness, dyphagia, drooling, and drooping eyelids and tongue is most likely infected by what?
botulism
If a dog eats the carcass of a dead animal and then shows signs of weakness and flaccid paralysis, what disease do they have?
botulism
Cats are resistant to what disease?
botulism
Babies who eat honey and then develop muscle weakness and droopy eyelids mostly likely have what disease?
botulism
Botulism can be diagnosed by toxin identification using what two techniques?
ELISA, mouse inoculation test
Botulism has a high mortality rate in horses and ruminants, unless they are given the _______.
antitoxin
Practices such as preventing access to carrion, storing feed properly, and vaccinating are good prevention measures for what disease?
botulism
What sub-species of bacteria has types A, B, C, and D and is a commensal of animal intestines?
C. perfringens
What type of C. perfringens produces alpha toxin and causes necrosis of the intestinal cell wall (necrotic enteritis)?
type A
What causes gas gangrene and food poisoning in people?
C. perfringens-type A
What type of C. perfringens produces alpha toxin and cytotoxic beta toxin, which causes hemorrhagic necrosis of the intestine?
type C
If you see a foal, piglet, lamb, child, or calve with stomach pain and bloody diarrhea, what do you suspect they have?
C. perfringens-type C
Treatment of C. perfringens-type C can be done by what 2 practices?
antibiotics, supportive care
High grain diets and stress causes over proliferation of what species of bacteria?
C. perfringens-type D
C. perfringens-type D produces what toxin that causes systemic effects?
epsilon toxin
Over eating disease and pulpy kidney disease are caused by what species of bacteria?
C. perfringens-type D
If you see a ruminant that is eating well, growing rapidly, and then has a rapid onset of ataxia, convulsions, coma, diarrhea, or death, what bacteria are they probably infected with?
C. perfringens-type D
Brain edema and kidney degeneration are both caused by the toxins of what bacterial species?
C. perfringens-type D
Infection by C. perfringen-type D can be controlled by vaccinating with Type D _______ or _____ and with adjusted _____ practices.
toxoid, bacterin, feeding
Clostridium toxins can be identified using what diagnostic test?
ELISA
What produces exotoxins that increase capillary permeability and cause myonecrosis and systemic toxemia?
C. chauvoei
What disease is caused by C. chauvoei that results in a sudden onset of muscle inflammation and necrosis?
blackleg
C. chauvoei is found in what 2 places?
soil, intestinal tract
If you have a rapidly growing cow or sheep receiving high levels of nutrition that may compromise the GI tract, what bacterial infection are they susceptible to?
C. chauvoei
What are the two main modes of transmission of C. chauvoei?
ingestion of spores, endogenous
What disease multiplies in the intestinal tract and causes fever, lameness or stiff gate from necrotic muscle, or sudden death without any signs?
blackleg
C. chauvoei can be diagnosed by what test?
fluorescent antibody test
C. chauvoei is not easily treated but can be prevented by giving _____ or ______.
bacterin, antibiotics
What causes "redwater disease", "infectious icterohemoglobinuria", and "bacillary hemoglobinuria"?
C. haemolyticum
What bacteria is characterized by intravascular hemolysis, capillary damage, and infection where liver damage (from liver flukes) has occurred?
C. haemolyticum
Coffee colored urine (hemoglobinuria) is caused by what bacteria?
C. haemolyticum
Infarction of liver and death by anoxemia and RBC destruction are characteristic of what disease?
redwater disease
Malignant edema (gangrenous myonecrosis with edema and systemic toxemia) is caused by toxins from what bacteria?
C. septicum
What disease is mainly caused by C. septicum but can also be caused by other clostridium species?
malignant edema
Where does C. septicum infection usually occur?
wounds
Malignant edema can be diagnosed using what test?
fluorescent antibody test
C. difficile causes ____ in foals, ____ in dogs, and ____ in humans.
colitis, chronic diarrhea, enterocolitis
C. piliforme causes what disease in foals?
Tyzzer's disease
What is the morphology of Bacillus?
aerobic spore-forming rod
What is the only important Bacillus pathogen?
B. anthracis
Bacillus is found in the _____ and causes _____.
soil, anthrax
What bacteria causes outbreaks in the summer after a major climate change?
B. anthracis
The virulence determinants of B. anthracis are encoded on 2 _____. One encodes a capsule to resist phagocytosis and the other encodes a 3 component exotoxin.
plasmids
The individual toxin components of this bacteria are harmless. The edema toxin and lethal toxin are made with combinations of toxin components. What is the bacteria?
B. anthracis
In the infection of B. anthracis, ___ binds, which facilitates the uptake of ___ and ___. (Toxin components)
PA, LF, EF
What are the three main modes of transmission of B. anthracis?
ingestion of spores, inhalation of spores, cutaneous penetration of spore
What causes "wool sorters disease" in humans?
B. anthracis
Death by B. anthracis is due to what two symptoms?
respiratory failure, anoxia
What are the 4 forms of disease from anthrax?
peracute, acute, intestinal, chronic
Diarrhea, edema of tongue, and bleeding from body openings is from the ____ form of ___.
acute, anthrax
What disease causes mouth and throat hemorrhaging and edema, dysphagia, and gastrointeritis in swine, dogs, and cats?
anthrax
What 2 forms of anthrax are most commonly seen in ruminants?
peracute, acute
Most human cases of anthrax are _____, which is not a common form in animals.
cutaneous
Severe lung edema (very fatal) and gastroenteritis in humans are both caused by what?
anthrax
Do not perform necropsy if you suspect what type of infection?
anthrax
Absence of rigor mortis and tarry blood in a carcass are sings of what disease?
anthrax
Unlike clostridium, B. anthracis contains a ____ which is visible when stained.
capsule
What two diagnostic tests can be used to diagnose Anthrax?
PCR, ELISA
Disposal of infected material (usually done by a state or federal vet) is a very important practice when dealing with what organism?
B. anthracis
Infected carcasses and contaminated material have to be burned or buried if infected with what bacteria?
B. anthracis
What are the 2 vaccines for Anthrax?
plasmid-cured, subunit
What 2 bacteria utilize bacterial urease as a virulence factor?
S. pseudintermedius, C. renale group