27 terms

Studying The Middle Ages in Europe

These cards are a compilation of various chapters from Unit Three of the AP World History curriculum. The time range of the entire collection of cards range from 600 c. CE - 1450 CE. This set specifically follows the Middle Ages in Europe. Concepts covered include: -Manorialism and the role of serfs in Western Europe -Feudalism during the early Middle Ages, and the success of centralized feudal systems in the later Middle Ages (England, France) -Results of the Crusades -Intellectual and cultur…
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Charlemagne
800 AD crowned by the Pope as the head of the Holy Roman Empire, which extended from northern Spain to western Germany and northern Italy.
He was known as Charles the Great, he ruled most of what is now France and Germany. He united tribes in Central and Western Europe into 1 empire. He helped people see themselves as Europeans not as tribes.
Manorialism
The economic system of the Middle Ages. Manors were self-sufficient; Land = Wealth; Trade was minimal
Feudalism
The political and social hierarchy that included landlords, vassals, and serfs. Created by exchanging grants of lands (fiefs) in return for formal, written oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service; greater lords provided protection and aid to lesser lords (vassals) in return for military service. Lords provided protection for serfs; serfs provided service for lords.
Gothic architecture
Architecture of the twelfth-century Europe, featuring stained-glass windows, flying buttresses, tall spires, and pointed arches
The Magna Carta
A treaty signed by King John of England in 1215.
It protected rights against the Kings claims.
Represented idea of limited government.
The Hundred Years War
A war fought between England and France over lands England possessed in France and feudal relationships. (1337-14543)
Thomas Aquinas
Maintained the basic belief that faith comes first; yet greatly expanded the eye given to reason.
scholasticism
The use of logic to resolve theological (religious) problems.
Charles Martel
Charles the "Hammer"; led the the Battle of Tours and saved Europe from the Islamic expansion. (732 C.E.)
Crusades
series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims (temporarily succeeded in capturing Jerusalem and establishing Christian kingdoms), a war for the cross or holy war
Hagia Sophia
large church constructed in Constantinople during the reign of Justinian
Joan of Arc
A French military leader of the fifteenth century, a national heroine who at the age of seventeen took up arms to establish the rightful king on the French throne. She claimed to have heard God speak to her in voices. These claims eventually led to her trial for heresy and her execution by burning at the stake. Joan of Arc is a saint of the Roman Catholic Church
Justinian
Eastern Roman emperor 527-565 CE; tried to restore unity of old Roman Empire; issued most famous compilation of Roman law
Battle of Tours
Muslim expansion into Europe was stopped by Charles Martel in 732CE
fief
The property or fee granted to a vassal for his maintenance by his lord in return for service.
Benedictine Rule
A collection of rules or guidelines for monks and monasteries; named for Benedict of Nursia; widely used in Europe in the Middle Ages
Monasteries
Were a community of monks and were built all over Europe in the Middle ages
Monk
Religious men who lived apart from society in isolated communities. They spent their time in prayer, work and meditation.
papal supremacy
The claim of medieval popes that they had authority over all secular rulers.
canon law
the Church's own body of laws; this law applied to religious teachings, the behavior of the clergy, and even marriages and morals
Chivalry
Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages.
Ideals of knightly virtues, honour and of courtly love; came to known as 'gentlemanly conduct.'
interdict
An order excluding an entire town, region, or kingdom from receiving most sacraments and Christian burial, a powerful noble who opposed the Church could face this, and even the strongest ruler gave in rather than face the interdict, which would cause revolts amongst the common people.
Reconquista
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain), lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
Byzantine Empire
(330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.
Fall of Rome
Caused the Middle Ages to begin
meant that there was no centralized government to protect citizens and provide services
Black Plague
A disease carried by fleas on rats that traveled to Europe from Asian trade ships. The Plague engulfed Europe during the Middle Ages. It killed about one-third of the population. This caused the feudal system died out and the middle ages to end.
Justinian Code
A single, uniform code that compiled all Roman laws. It decided legal questions that regulated whole areas of Byzantine life (Example: Marriage, slavery, property, inheritance, women's rights, and criminal justice). Lasted for 900 years and influenced modern law codes.

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