History & Theory of Landscape Architecture

Which of the following statements is CORRECT about the evolution of the term Landscape?
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Terms in this set (70)
Which is the correct answer as a feature of Mesopotamian civilization (select all)?-First urban revolution -First major floodplain cultures -The term Axis Mundi has been greatly extended to refer to any mythological conceptWhich of the following elements is NOT considered a portion of a developed Greek city-state?CardoWhich of the following terms describes a central urbanized area and its surrounding villages, which together follow the same law, have one form of government, and share languages, religious beliefs, and ways of life?City-StateRoman cities developed around a grid layout oriented toward a central intersection generally forming the town center. What are the two principle streets which create this central intersection?Cardo and DecumanusThis Roman term describes porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls.PorticoWhich of the following is NOT considered a Bronze Age?The belief that such elements as Wind and Water had Conscious Life and that Spirit forces Dwelt within Trees, Birds, Fish, Reptiles, and MammalsWhich of the following is the first civilization to appear on European soil?Minoan CivilizationWhich of the following elements is NOT considered elements of a Roman Urbanism?Scattered settlements with large organizational structuresWhich of the following are not the characteristics of the Greek city structure (select all)?Incremental whereby buildings streets and alleys are built as the need arises over timeWhich of the following is NOT considered a Near East Neolithic Community?Catal WillendorfWhich of the following statements is UNTRUE about the Middle Ages:Wool, granite, and iron working were the three primary industriesWhich of the following major events did NOT occur during the Medieval times?The Protestant ReformationTowns in the Middle Ages had many similarities. Which of the following elements is NOT a typical component of Medieval urban form?Rooftop Social SpacesMedieval European cities were generally small, compact urbanized pockets of developments. While most towns were significantly different in terms of layout and aesthetics, Medieval urban form also had many shared characteristics. Which one of the following elements is NOT a urban form component of a typical Medieval town?Peristyle gardensWhich of the following terms best describes the Medieval word for the space around the church where people gathered before or after service?ParvisWhich of the following cities does NOT have a square in it which was built during the Middle Ages?Potennzia, ItalyWhich of the following is NOT a characteristic of the Middle Ages?Broad spring fed valleys separated by smaller mountainsWhich of the following is NOT a characteristic of the cities during the Middle Ages?Polis was a government by the people with citizenship reserved for malesWhich of the following is not a characteristic of political issue of the middle of age?Lands divided up into self-sufficient manorsWhich of the following is not a characteristic of medieval urban form?Citizens were officially classified as equal systemsWhich of the following statements is UNTRUE about the culture of historic Islamic European cities?Traders were the peasants of the society and were led by BedouinsWhich of the following statements describes the head of state and the title for the ruler of the Islamic world?CaliphWhich of the following is NOT a traditional component of an Islamic city?ParvisWhich of the following statements is UNTRUE about the layout and character of Islamic cities?Spires, arches, and domes were seldom used in the architectureWhich of the following sites is NOT considered an early Islamic Mogul Garden?The Alhambra of GeneralifeWhich of the following attributes is NOT a shared characteristic of a typical historic Islamic Garden?External focus away from water featuresWhich of the following is not the culture that Islamic civilization has integrated into their architecture for creative work?Assyrian cultural traditionWhich of the following explains the characteristics of other places?Citadel is located on the Northern SideIt refers to a type of decoration used in the Iberian Christian kingdoms, primarily between the 13th and 16th centuries. What is this?Mudejar StyleWhich of the following has a different meaning?MiradorWhich of the following BEST DESCRIBES the characteristics of a Renaissance Fortress Town?None of the above characteristics are typically descriptive of Renaissance fortress townsWhich of the following statements is NOT true about Renaissance fortress towns?Charlesville's uniqueness lied in its absence of a central squareWhich of the following circumstances DID NOT contribute to the spread of Humanist thought outside of Italy into Northern Europe?A monarch system which was based on total devotion to the catholic churchExpansion during the Northern Renaissance began to take its toll on nature. Which of the following statements is FALSE in regard to the impact of this expansion?Wool and sheep trade were obsolete but vast open lands were still needed to raise other domesticated animals resulting in deforestationThe spreading of Renaissance ideas to Northern Europe from Italy resulted in cultural variations of design ideals. Which of the following statements is TRUE about distinctions between French, English, and Italian gardens during this time?The English sought a deeper sympathy toward nature in their gardens while the French preferred absolute dominance of nature in their gardensThis term describes a Renaissance art style which utilizes light-dark contrasts used to suggest the volume and modeling of the subjects depicted and for dramatic effectChiaroscuroThe use of axial planning on an urban scale during the Renaissance merged well with the emphasis on proportion during the time. Which of the following options best describes the primary design elements of axial planning on an urban scale during the Renaissance?The relatively small utility of the gridironThis term describes a viewing gallery or corridor at ground level.LoggiaWhich of the following terms describes a feature of the French formal garden that was both a promenade and an extension of the view? It either ended in a terminal feature, such as a garden temple, or extended into apparent infinity at the horizon?AlleeWho was a scholar and poet of early Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists?Francesco PetrarchWhich of the following terms does not describe Renaissance Gardens?MeccaWhich of the following is not a characteristic of the English Renaissance?Clear Geometrical order of Renaissance Design was always exhibited in EnglandWhich of the following statements BEST describes characteristics of the Grand Manner?Began with the planning of Rome, starting with Pope Sixtus VWhich of the following statements or events does NOT characterize the Baroque period?Victorian style became a universal design languageAll of the following statements describe principle elements of the Baroque cityscape EXCEPT?Urban squares designed as stages for commemoration of heroes diminished significantlyWhich of the following characteristics does NOT represent the French formal garden style of Andre LeNotre?Paths defined by raised bedsWhich of the following statements is UNTRUE about Versailles?All major axes terminate into bosquet areasWhat term describes a garden extension from a public space in Baroque Paris?CoursEuropean influence in the Americas was dominated by Spanish, Dutch, French, and English cultures. Spanish and English cultures left the strongest influences on the landscape. Spanish townships were functionally based while English townships were form based. Which of the following statements is UNTRUE about Spanish colonial settlements in early America?All of the above answers are correctWhich of the following designers said, "All. gardening. is. landscape painting?"Claude LorrainWhich of the following statements is TRUE about William Shenstone?None of the above statements describe William ShenstoneLancelot "Capability" Brown was a major influential garden designer of the 1700's. Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE about Capability Brown?Apprenticeship at Chatsworth provided an abundance of horticultural knowledgeWhich of the following statements is MOST TRUE about the design of Stowe, Buckinghamshire?Answers A & B are correctWhich of the following design mechanisms obviously attempts to bring something to a viewer's mind without focusing on it explicitly?AllusionWhich of the following is NOT true about Thomas Jefferson during the Age of Enlightenment?Had a private retreat in Mount Vernon, VirginiaWhich of the following is NOT an example of a significant influence on Romantic gardens from Chinese gardens?A newfound view of the independent farmer as superior to the paid workerWhich of the following does not describe Thomas Jefferson's National Grid?AngloWhich of the following does not describe the three concepts of space in Chinese influences?ChinoiserieWhich of the following describes a 17th-century English garden?Symmetrical gardenWhich of the following is not true of Brown's design principles in the Enlightenment?Expressed all visible aspects of working farm (agrarian)