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304 terms

Play Midterm

STUDY
PLAY
A teacher's role in fostering creative thought includes:
showing support, acceptance, and promotion of desirable behavior
To challenge school age children's divergent thinking, Wassermnn suggests this three-step model:
ply-debrief-replay
Toddler's conflict is typically related to:
possession of toys
Children develop prosocial behavior when they:
see adults in conflict
In the Reggio Emilia Schools in Italy, teachers are:
democratic
Conflict is:
something that can enhance children's social development
Creative teachers view themselves as:
decision-makers, problem solvers, and risk takers
In conflict situations:
focus on what can be done
Children who are in this type of classroom feel most secure, self-assertive, and self-controlled
democratic
The view that children gradually build their own understandings about and knowledge of the world through active participation best describes
constructivism
Autocratic adults tend to:
discourage individuality in their students
Both concept building and problem solving are aspects of children's
creative growth
Which of the following is considered to be the most powerful influence on children's cooperative and self-responsible behaviors?
watching significant adults model prosocial behavior
Children reflect on and discuss the play experience during which of these stages?
Debrief
An appropriate strategy to deal with conflict for intermediate children includes:
opportunities for peer acceptance, opportunities to participate in rule governed games, model constructive ways of dealing with conflict and problems
The Piagetian viewpoint that children are "doers"-builders of understandings of their world and need many opportunities to communicate ideas
constructivism
The belief that the environment is the single most important variable in shaping development
behaviorism
The belief that people are capable of controlling their lives through choice and creative growth
humanism
Children learn socially appropriate behavior by observing and imitating models in their world
social learning
Students are empowered to be responsible for their own learning and actions
permissive
Uses an unbending set of rules to maintain control
autocratic
Fosters resentful, rebellious interactions; develops children who have difficulty with peer interactions
autocratic
An inconsistent environment with few or no limits placed on children
permissive
Teachers offer age appropriate materials, encourage choice, have high expectations or the students, and respect their ideas
democratic
projects a laissez-faire, uninterested attitude
permissive
Prepares the environment with choices and plenty of time for interactions
democratic
An ongoing, independent study of a topic that may involve several children
project work
Challenges children's divergent thinking in all areas
investigative play
enhances children's conceptual understandings in all areas
project work
Involves a shared goal but a difference of opinion
inquiry and problem based learning
collaboration exposes children to different points of view and increases social interaction skills
inquiry and problem based learning
Teachers can guide children's creative growth by indirect or direct strategies
true
Teachers should study and adopt the one theory of learning that best suits their teaching needs and style
false
children learn social behavior by observing others in social settings
true
Teachers should del with all children in the same way
false
autocratic teachers generally foster students who are anxious, withdrawn, and apprehensive
true
How teachers feel about themselves has little influence on children's behavior
false
Creative teachers expect children to be responsible for their own learning by providing appropriate materials and guiding inquiry
true
very young children can be responsible for making choices and decisions
true
guidance techniques are not considered to be developmentally sequenced
false
spontaneous sharing is considered prosocial behavior
true
an eclectic approach includes applying a variety of theories that fit your beliefs and help you make the best educations devision for children's creative thought and behavior
true
young children often cannot distinguish between intentional and unintentional behavior
true
good problems for young children are real, relevant, and have a single solution
false
The goal of guiding children's creative growth is well behaved children
false
teachers should be the center of control in the early childhood classroom
false
democratic teachers believe that children need firm but reasonable limits
true
to help develop self control, have children sit in a chair for five minutes when they demonstrate inappropriate behavior
false
providing choices for children confuses them
false
democratic teaching styles help children to feel a sense of security and increase self sufficiency
true
When teachers are implementing the Project Approach, and project undertaken must focus on a subject for a minimum on one week
false
keeping children engaged in learning should not be a teacher's goal
false
When teachers encourage children to use I-messages, they are supporting the theory of behaviorism
false
one fundamental classroom rule that helps children learn positive ways of dealing with each other is "You can't say you can't play"
true
teachers should discourage the practice of children bringing items from home to school that they will not or should not share
true
an eclectic approach means understanding and applying one theory that fits your beliefs
false
good problems require the child to modify, move, or transform the materials
true
children should have an active role in creating and monitoring classroom rules
true
Teachers often overestimate the influence of their own upbringing and value system on guiding the creative behaviors of others
false
adults' interactions with children exert a minor influence on the way they express creative behavior
false
in order to diminish children's power struggle disputes, keep track of turn-taking to ensure that every child really does get a turn
true
good problems help the child believe in his or her own problem solving abilities
true
Which of the following is NOT a question that will help determine if an activity is or is not art?
Will their parents like it?
If most children in class are drawing nonrepresentationally, the teacher should:
invite the child to tell him or her about the art
Ownership, as it refers to children's art means that:
the child makes decisions and choices about his or her own art work
Which of the following is NOT something that children learn through the arts?
to follow directions carefully
Which of the following is NOT an example of real art?
making a paper bag puppet using patterns from a book for the puppet's face
If a child is an ELL, you should encourage her to use self expression through
drawings, sculpture, painting, collage
Which of the following is NOT a practice that will promote safe art instruction?
use of inexpensive, imported products
Which of the following is an effective response to children's art?
intervene when children seem stalled or frustrated
Which of the following is an appropriate way to develop children's vocabulary about art?
introducing the vocabulary in context
Some of the things that children should do in an art program include:
all of these: A. examining intensively both natural and man-made objects from many sources
B. experimenting in-depth with art materials and processes to determine effectiveness in creating new forms
C. working with tools appropriate to the child's abilities and developing skills needed for satisfying aesthetic expression
D. organizing, evaluating, and reorganizing works-in-progress to gain an understanding of line, form, color, and texture in space
When discussing art with young children, use art that:
intrigues the children
It is important for teachers to make are activities accessible to young children with special needs. An adaptation for a child with learning disabilities or attentional difficulties includes all of the following except:
have the child work with a partner and allow the partner to complete the work
Some indicators of poor quality in an art program are:
children are unwilling to accept new challenges in art
Which of the following is NOT recommended practice in the teaching of art?
requiring conformity
Which of the following is NOT a guideline for displaying children's art?
placing the work at an adults' eye level
Teaching through the arts is
using creative and artistic approaches to teach all subjects
An example of a child's work of art as defined in the text is
forming an animal out of clay
young gifted children's art work may include all of the following except:
unrealistic portrayals
Are among young children usually is classified as
nonrepresentational
Which of the following influences young children's artistic development?
family discipline, mental capacity, motor development, access to art materials
representational art:
shows planning and inclusion of details
Which of the following is an example of art for young children?
using finger paints to create pictures of their choice
Art is related to the child's thinking process
cognitive
An artist needs to be keenly aware of sensory input
perceptual
If a child realizes that a drawing can express feelings in a concrete way, this illustrates the child's understanding of the ___ nature of art
graphic
A child's art changes as the child matures
developmental
A child's art reflects the events and beliefs that she experiences daily
affected by context and culture
in terms of human figure drawings, toddlers usually scribble, threes usually name their scribbles, and preschoolers begin to produce "tadpole" people
developmental
refers to whether or not children have had access to art materials and experiences
prior experiences
the strengths, abilities, and adaptations that must be considered in order to provide authentic art activities for all children
visual skills, mental capacity, and motor coordination
refers to children's opportunities to see various types of art in their environments and learn about art
cultural opportunities
the effect of adults' acceptance or rejection of children's artistic efforts and pursuits
family discipline
present the strategy of wiping each side of the brush on the rim of the paint container to avoid drips and grasping the brush with fingers above the metal rim
second step
show children how to avoid smearing by letting one color dry before putting wat paint over or very close to it, how to use different size brushes for different purposes, and how to rinse brushes in cool water and store them with bristles up
third step
present the basic concepts of using protective clothing, putting the brush back in the same color, and cleaning up after painting
first step
teach children different brush strokes or how to sketch before painting
fourth step
children seek to build competence by undertaking a wide variety of art activities, including completing multi-step group projects
second and third graders
art activities are an essential part of the curriculum
all ages
children begin to learn how to communicate through symbols, as control of drawing increases
preschoolers and kindergarteners
children communicate directly through body movements. Visual artworks are more of a happening than a means of communicating
infants and toddlers
children become more competent as symbol makers, using new and more involved techniques
first graders
art works need to be produced in a solitary fashion; otherwise children will copy the work of their peers
false
art offers a way of communicating and accepting other cultures by giving children insight into the history, values, and aesthetic sensibilities of themselves and other
true
children should not have access to art materials because they can be unsafe and messy
false
if the teacher asks questions such as: "Look at the lines on your paper. On the ceiling. Can you find other lines? Thin lines? Thick lines?" that teacher is building children's conception of an artistic element
true
If the teacher gives clear instructions such as "Everyone, look up here. Your rabbit should look exactly like mine when you are finished," that teacher's behavior reflects sound teaching practices
false
If the teacher shows pictures of several sculptures, then asks, "Which one of these sculptures was made a long time ago? Why do you think so?" that teacher is encouraging children to think more deeply about works of art.
true
Teachers should model for children the importance of conserving materials and using only what is necessary
true
if a teacher teaches children to share supplies, to respect the work of otehr, and to help clean up, that teacher is thwarting children's creativity
false
When teachers are guiding an art activity for young children, it is not important to teach young children about the use and care of art supplies and equipment
false
children with physical disabilities cannot be expected to benefit from or participate in art activities
false
art can become a refuge for children with academic difficulties when competition is downplays and they are allowed to pursue their interest at their own pace
true
All art materials have been thoroughly tested by the manufacturers so that health and safety concerns are effectively eliminated and no further considerations need to be taken.
false
art provides children with an appropriate outlet to express strong emotions and feelings
true
when the arts combined appropriately with other subject areas, the integrated curriculum has personal relevance for students
true
growth in art is indicated by sequential stages of development that cannot be forced
true
Within the REggio Emilia approach to early childhood, children are viewed as passive seekers of knowledge
false
children should be taught the steps to cleaning up after using art supplies
true
Children are creative when they
express themselves in inventive, symbolic ways
According to Sternberg's trarchic theory of intelligence, creative thought is defined by
creating, designing, imagining, and supposing
Which classical theorist asserts that teachers need to cultivate creativity in all children, not just those that possess great talent?
Alfred Adler
Contemporary experts view creativity as a ____ constructed trait
socially
Sternberg's theory of intelligence includes all of the following except
role models for creativity
A mistake commonly made by teachers of young children is
being overly influenced by socially desirable behavior, confusing measures of intelligence with measures of creativity, being overly influenced by the child's rate of development
Which of the following types of activities stimulate creative thought?
inventing a robot puppet from recycled materials
___ is a creative trait that refers to the ability to generate many ideas or possible solutions to a problem
fluency
Characteristics related to creative genius are:
the ability to become absorbed in an activity, sensitivity to internal and external stimuli, and lack of inhibition
According to the text, in oder for children to feel free to express themselves creatively, they need to acquire a sense of
psychological freedom
Which of the following creative thinking traits are often treated as misbehavior or disrespect when exhibited by students from low socio-economic backgrounds?
aggressive and loud use of voice
One of the four key points about the way creativity develops is that
there exist important relationships between creativity and culture, especially in the early years
All of the following are observable characteristics of children's creative though processes except:
ask few questions
The SCAMPER strategy was originally developed by Osborn and elaborated by Barnes. The acronym SCAMPER stands for ___
substitute, combine, adapt, modify, magnify, minify, put to other uses, eliminate, reverse, rearrange
Creative behavior that results in many new meaningful forms
flexible
Creative behavior that has low probability of occurrence
appropriate and relevant
Creative behavior that meets the goals of the person who produced it
fluent
Creative behavior that explores and uses nontraditional approaches to problem solving
original
The components of creative behavior
all of these
The ability to form rich and varied mental images or concepts of people, places, things, and situations which are not present
imagination
The ability to create mental images or concepts which have little similarity to the real world
fantasy
Explores the impossible or make-believe; the "what-if" situation
fantasy
An intuitive sense of what might be or what something might become
psychological freedom and psychological safety
Experts believe this peaks during early childhood
imagination and fantasy
Carl Rogers' conditions for creative growth
imagination and fantasy
The external environment that adults provide for children's creative growth
psychological safety
The internal environment, such as the child's self-esteem or confidence
psychological freedom
The mind continues to work on the problem. A person's critical, judgmental side is put on hold
incubation
Sudden insight which is recognized as a complete and harmonious way of approaching a task
illumination
The application of knowledge, skills and understanding to materials, objects, problems or combinations of these things
preparation or brainstorming
When the outcome of the creative process is shared with others
verification/communication
The product of creative thought is tested in terms of usefulness, completeness and correctness
verification/communication
The creative person is fully functioning, self-actualized, and courageous
psychoanalytic theory
Creativity is a way of compensating for perceived physical or psychological inferiority
humanistic theory
Creativity is a type of problem solving that depends on the child's thinking processes
constructivist
An emphasis on competition
thwarts creativity
lavish praise on children's work
supports creativity
inflexible schedules
thwarts creativity
rewarding courage and accepting nonconformist behavior
supports creativity
accepting new ideas
supports creativity
set strict and limited timelines for project and artifact completion
supports creativity
seeking new approaches to problems
supports creativity
creating learning communities in classrooms
supports creativity
Since children are newer to the world, their sensory impressions are particularly keen
true
A teacher should encourage rather than praise a child
true
According to Gardner, children are not as few in their thinking as adults are
false
Imagination and fantasy are components of creativity that generally peak during late elementary years for children
false
Giving children printed pictures to color/or cut out is recommended in order to foster their creativity
false
By age 5, children's creative thinking is often "stalled"
false
Divergent thinking means that there is one acceptable answer
false
Teachers often associate creativity with economic privilege
true
Creative responses and products must be relevant and capable of offering genuine solutions
false
creative thought exists only inside the individual
true
High-achieving children, those who do well academically, are the most creative individuals
false
Teacher-directed art activities--such as providing the children with cut out shaped and asking them to assemble a picture--stimulate creativity
false
Classrooms in which product is emphasized over process are generally more creative environments
true
Lev Vygotsky, a Russian theorist, has argued that learning is fundamentally a cognitive activity
True
The best way to teach an art lesson is for the teacher to provide young children with patterns to trace or copy
false
Generally speaking, teachers who have learned to value the process as well as the product are more likely to encourage creativity among their students
True
Behaviors associated with imagination and creativity in young children are often interpreted negatively, discouraged, or even punished
true
The most effective way to foster creativity is to constantly praise children's work
false
One of the fundamental skills a child learns while developing creativity is that of self-evaluation
true
In order for teachers to foster creativity in students, they should provide support and positive feedback for problem finding, not just problem solving
true
Activities stimulate creative thought and problem solving when they enable children to engage in teacher-directed work
false
Which type of play is characterized by using imagination to transform self and objects
symbolic play
Classical theories of play include all of the following except
psychoanalytic theory
A group of young children are called to the meeting area by their teacher and she leads them in a finger play. Which type of play does this represent?
directed play
Play offers an opportunity to respect cultural diversity. The teacher needs to
provide varied materials and books representing different cultures
Sociodramatic play
involves more than on child in verbal communication and interaction around a jointly-elaborated sequence or theme
Play serves a vital role in children's social development because it
increases social competence, allows them to practice communication skills, allows them to take on other roles and points of view, teaches them to share
According to the text, play supports children's emotional development by all of the following except
teaching them to control and suppress emotions
During the infant through toddler stage, children engage in
symbolic play
Teachers should intervene in children's play in all of the following situations except
When children appear to be watching others play
When teachers provide feedback on a child's play activity, they are acting as a
responder
Activities such as singing ABC songs, spelling games, and addition facts races are considered ___ learning
rote
Grop games, fingerplays, and directed story reenactment is considered ____ learning
receptive
Which characteristic is not associated with play?
stringent time constraints are placed on the activity
This theorist emphasized the way children use play as a vehicle for social interaction and the development of the social tool called language
Vygotsky
Referred to as sensorimotor, practice, or exercise play
functional play
When the child focuses on a lasting end product
games with rules
Fourth graders playing Monopoly or Scrabble
games with rules
Used most frequently by preschoolers to create something according to a preconceived plan
constructive play
A group of kindergarteners are playing veterinarian's office with stuffed toys as patients
symbolic play
infants grasping a mobile
functional play
a toddler pretends to drink from her empty cup
symbolic play
A type of play that depends on skills such as coordination, language, cooperation, and competition
games with rules
School-aged children playing marbles
games with rules
Typical play of an infant who fills and empties a plastic milk bottle
functional play
Play develops self-esteem as children gain mastery of physical and social skills
Erickson
Children individually create their own knowledge about the world through different types of play
Piaget
Play is an important vehicle for emotional release
Freud
Play acts as a mental support that enables children to solve problems in new way
Vygotsky
Play promotes flexible thinking and creative problem solving
Bruner
When children who are engaged in hospital play decide to use a toy stethoscope, use real gauze for bandages, and write out prescriptions on a note pad, this illustrates the ___ characteristic of play
intrinsically motivated and active
If a group of kindergarteners are at play and one says "NO! Robbers aren't supposed to get away from the cops," this illustrates the ___ characteristic of play
rule-bound
When children return to a favorite play theme over and over again, this is evidence that the play is ___
pleasurable
If a teacher assigns a play theme to children, it is no longer ___
intrinsically motivated
If a child uses on thing to stand for something else, such as a puzzle for a food tray, this illustrates that ___ characteristic of play
symbolic
children play with each other in similar loosely organized activities; some attempts made to control who may join the group
associative play
A child stands within speaking/hearing distance and observes, asks questions and talks to other children but does not actually enter into play
onlooker behavior
A child simply watches the activity of others; tends to wander about aimlessly and glance around the room
unoccupied behavior
A child plays alongside or nearby another child; uses like toys but does not really share
parallel play
Children engage in complex, social organization with shared common goals such as making a product, dramatizing a situation, or playing a formal game; children take different roles and have a strong sense of belonging or not belonging to a group
cooperative play
A group of second graders playing kick ball or Red Rover
cooperative play
A level of play common in children who are newcomers to the group or culture
unoccupied behavior, onlooker behavior, solitary play
A level of play typical among infants or toddlers
solitary play
A level of play common among school-age children
cooperative play
Type of play in which little direct involvement in another child's play takes place
solitary play
The most socialized form of play
cooperative play
If two toddlers play side by side with blocks, this is ___ play
parallel
Games and inventions teach little to help children attain valuable emotional skills
false
play has little or no effect on developing social competencies in children
flase
Dramatic play that involves more than one child and has verbal communication about the play is called sociodramatic play
true
The teacher has responsibilities for play that encompass allocating time, providing play materials, and functioning as a facilitator for children's play
true
preschool children usually prefer competitive games
false
children with special needs cannot be expected to participate in play activities
false
The recreation/relaxation theory of play suggests that play replenishes energy used during work
true
playing with writing tools helps children to develop large motor control skills
false
singing ABC songs is an example of work disguised as play
true
Play has a developmental sequence
True
Play contributes to all areas of children's development
true
Since play is purely a recreational activity for children, it has no significant impact on their cognitive development
false
Much of the research on play shows its relationship to the development of children's ability to relate to other cultures
false
active play contributes to children's gross motor development
true
games provide opportunities to learn and practice skills across all learning domains
true
As children mature and enter the primary grades, their play tends to focus more on games with rules
true
For older children, the ability to use a reflective and analytical approach to language is unrelated to their level of linguistic awareness and achievements
false
teachers should assume a role that dominates the direction of children's play
false
standards are statements that guide what children should know and be able to do in a given content area at a given time
true
If children do not develop competence in fundamental skills of movement, they may
never develop fine motor skills
a music program is achieving its goals when children learn to
value music as part of everyday life
A quality music program is
developmentally appropriate
Which of the following is a recommended strategy for the non-musician teacher?
identify the source of your inhibitions, seek opportunities for professional development, use simple accompaniments, use recoded music
Teachers fulfill their musical roles and responsibilities when they function as all of the following except
evaluators
Research suggests that children generally prefer music and songs
with dominant rhythm patters, with repetition and nonsense, that emphasize enjoyment, that tell a story
The National Dance Association believes that all children should acquire the following ability in dance
dynamics, performance, timing and rhythm, movement mechanics
Creating a tune at a keyboard involves the higher-level thinking skill of ___
analysis
What is the major way in which dance skills contribute to the young child's cognitive development
dance develops kinesthetic/bodily intelligence
In order to best maximize each child's musical abilities, teachers have responsibility for
valuing both the musician and the musical experience
A classroom music laboratory should emphasize
active involvement
While still in the hospital nursery, infants respond differently to slow music, such as lullabies, and lively music, such as action songs. Babies become more active when lively music is plays. The musical element the infants are responding to is ___
dynamics
Children begin to use objects and pictures to represent ideas
iconic stage
Children begin to use abstract symbols, primarily language, to represent ideas
symbolic stage
From birth through the school years, the typical child masters these stages
enactive, iconic, and symbolic stages
A toddler combines physical activity and music
enactive stage
Children participate, share and cooperate during musical activities
emotional and social development
A child practices large and small muscle control associated with exploring sounds and making music
psychomotor development
A baby recognizes her mother's voice, or a three year old requests a favorite action song
cognitive
A child's intellect is being fostered through music
aesthetic awareness
Children become familiar with the musical heritage of various geographic regions or ethnic groups
multicultural development
Children show an appreciation for dance and music
perceptual skills
Is sensitive to loudness or softness of a sound' responds to the human voice; responds in a more lively way to action songs and a more subdued way to lullabies
infants
discriminates among sounds and amy attempt to imitate sound or to approximate pitches; listens to music and responds more enthusiastically to certain songs; explores sound making; may join in on certain phrases of familiar songs; sings or hums improvisationally during play
toddlers
Singing voice is near mature level; sings "in tune" with a vocal range of approximately 8 to 10 notes, sense of harmony is emerging; learns to read song lyrics; able to master songs that place greater demands on memory and sequencing skills; greater awareness of printed music and its relationship to the way that music is sung or played; musical preferences are failry well established
elementary grades
Better voice control, rhythmic responses and mastery of song; names favorite tunes; recognizes familiar tunes and sings parts of them; with experience, plays a simple rhythm instrument
threes
Sense of pitch, rhythm, and melody emerge; usually understands some melodic contours and demonstrates some musical concepts; enjoys longer songs with predictable structures; can reproduce the melody in an echo song and has a vocal range of 5-6 notes.
fives
Capable of learning some basic musical concepts; can classify musical instruments by sound, shape, size, pitch and quality. Sings complete songs from memory with greater pitch control and rhythmic accuracy; sings both original songs and structured songs spontaneously; can sing an average of five notes; usually enjoys group singing games and more complex songs.
fours
Originated a program that relied on extensive parent involvement and taught children to play the violin and cello using child-sized instruments
Shinichi Suzuki
Argued for musical literacy through a carefully sequenced program of folk music
Zoltan Kodaly
Components of this educator's method include eurhythmics, solfege, and improvisation
Emile Jacques-Dalcroze
Advocated singing to and with children as a way to make the child's voice accurate, uniform, flexible, and sonorous
Jean Jacques Rosseau
Founded a school for gymnastics, music, and dance; focused on activities that children do naturally and with pleasure
Carl Orff
Invented a set of mushroom-shaped bells that helped children discover musical concepts within a prepared environment
Maria Montessori
Children grow musically when adults provide a supportive physical and emotional environment, opportunities for social interaction, and role models to emulate
true
parents singing is an insignificant influence on an infant's musical activity and development
false
it is not important for educators to identify sources of inhibition
false
Children must be taught to connect music with body movement
false
The best preparation for teachers who want to lead children in creative movement activities is professional dance lessons
false
The most important objective of a music program is identifying extraordinary talent
false
young children need to experience music in all of its forms: listening, moving to music, singing, playing instruments, discussing music, describing music, and representing music using both pictorial and musical symbols
true
Although it is important for children to develop as musical individuals, they should also learn how to participate with other and experience the pleasure of group music making
true
A designated "music time" is the only appropriate time to use music
false
A well-balanceed program contains many different types of music
true
children's singing voices are formed as early as age 7 or 8
flase
A child with a hearing impairment cannot be expected to participate in music
flase
According to National Dance Association, spatial awareness is when children dance with correct phrasing and counts per measure
false
Children proceed through the enactive, iconic, and symbolic stages in their understandings about music
true
It is best to follow a formal msuic curriculum without any deviation from what is recommended in the teacher's manual
false
Music should be integrated throughout the school day and across various subject areas
true
Children need to be introduced to music and dance lessons with an engaging story or lesson
false
Classical musical experiences are inappropriate in early childhood classrooms
false
A child is not actively participating in singing unless he or she can sing all of the lyrics to all the songs
false
According to the text, a quality music program provides children with opportunities to create, listen, and move to music
true
Since children have been hearing music since birth, it is not necessary to develop their listening skills in music
false