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means ancient times

beginnings of music are connected to the beginnings of what?



means middle ages. 500-1400 AD

middle ages are sometimes referred to as what

dark ages

negative connotaion is due to what

the domination and control of the common people by the royalty and the church and the general slow pace of cultural, educational, and social progress of the period.

cultural change and progress was slowed during this time due to what?

political unrest
dogma of church

medieval period is divided into what 2 eras


century of the trecento brought forth the flowering of what during the 15th century



rebirth. 1400-1600

renaissance reflects the rebirth of learning and appreciation of what 3 things

classical ideals

renaissance is also defined by the rise of what?


human achievement was regarded as what?

something that was a gift of god, not competition or devotion to god.

humanism during the renaissance was not a disregard for god, but for what?

but established a philosophy that looked at life as a gift of god.


celebratory section of the mass used to replace the tract during easter.


ancient times. pree 500 b.c

cantus firmus

literally means primary song.
used to identify elongated chant in the bottom voice of medieval motets

counter reformation

the reaction to the protestant reformation of the 16th century by the catholic church

dance suite

group of contrasting dances that are compiled into a singular composition

a form that originated in the late renaissance period.


last era of the medieval period.
characterized by the graceful architecture and stained glass

tall arches and spires and extensive use of stained glass of gothic cathedrals were made possible by flying buttresses

guidonian hand

a mnemonic device developed by guido of arezzo to teach sight singing.

a variant was used to develop the five-line staff


an a cappela, four to eight part composition initiated during the renaissance in italy and later popular in england that had pastoral texts and were written for the enjoyment of amateurs.


the service of the celebration of the sacrement of the eucharist in the early christian church and current catholic church


a series of notes performed on one syllable

melismatic organum

organum with chant placed in the lower voice and melismas added in upper voices to create a new composition during the medieval period


an early german secular singer


the book of texts for the mass throughout the church year


originally, a musical composition of the medieval period with multiple texts and a cantus firmus.

used later to means a sacred vocal composition that was not part of the mass.

musica reservata

"reserved music"

in the renaissance, a complimentary term indicating that music composition was pleasant to the sense and the words and music worked together to complete a work of great beauty.


informal marks on texts of the mass that developed in to musical notation

oblique organum

organum that consisted of voices that moved in contrary motion


an original worship service of the christian church.

the celebration of the office occurred at three-hour intervals everyday


the portion of the mass where the texts remain constant


added parallel or contrasting lines to plainchant to amplify or enhance the sound


the portion of the mass where the texts change according to the tradition of season of the liturgical church year


the religious movement of the 16th century that established a number of protestant denominations


the early era of the medieval period.

characterized by thick walls, roman arches, vaults, groin vaults, and barrel vaults, and small window openings


a somber portion of the mass. the alleluia replaces this movement during easter


the 14th century

the pivitole role that it holds between the medieval and renaissance periods.

hundred year's war, bubonic plague, and great schism


an early form of music where additional texts and melodies are added to the texts of the mass


early secular singers originating from the north of france


early secular singing originating in the south of france

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