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an attraction between ions of opposite charge that holds them together to form a stable molecule
bond in which a hydrogen atoms is covalently bonded to one oxygen or nitrogen atom is attracted to another oxygen or nitrogen atom
when two or more atoms, ions, or molecules combine to form new and larger molecules
small and simple, lack carbon, ionic bonds (oxygen, carbon dioxide, salts, acids and bases)
polar molecule; capable of forming four hydrogen bonds with nearby water molecules; excellent solvent; reactant or product in many chemical reactions, splitting and rejoining or hydrogen and hydroxide ions; excellent temperature buffer
a substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions and one or more negative ions (anions), hydrogen donor
dissociates into one or more positive ions (cations) plus one or more negatively charged hydroxide ions
specific groups of atoms that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions and are responsible for most of the characteristic chemical properties and many of the physical properties of a particular organic compound
dehydration synthesis or condensation reaction
hydrogen atom and hydroxyl group combine to produce water
sugars and starches; functions: building block of DNA, cell walls, synthesis of amino acids and fats in cell membranes, food reserves, to fuel cell activities with a ready source of energy; made of CHO
tens or hundreds of monosaccharides joined through dehydration synthesis; include: glycogen, cellulose, dextran, chitin, starch; broken down by amylase
nonpolar; insoluble in water; function in energy storage and provide the structure of membranes and some cell walls
fats or triglycerides; contain an glycerol and fatty acids; primary function is formation of plasma membranes that enclose cells
fatty acids that hae double bonds; create kinks in the chian, which keep the chains apart from one another
made up of glycerol, two fatty acids, and a phosphate group bonded to one of several organic groups; have polar heads and nonpolar tails; mycobacterium cell walls rich in complex lipids
four interconnected carbon rings; with and --OH group is called a sterol; sterols separate fatth acid chains
organic molecules that contain CHON, some also contain sulfur; 50% of cell's dry weight; functions: enzymes, transporter, bacteriocins, toxins, contraction and movement, structures, hormones, and antibodies
configurations of amino acids; designated by D and L; most are L; glucose occurs as D-glucose
the substance of which genes are made; made of sugar and phosphate backbone (double helix) and nitrogenous bases; A and G are purines, C and T/U are pyrimidines; G+C = 3 H bonds; A + T = 2 H bonds
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